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Table 2 Pooled effect estimates and heterogeneity of the correlation coefficients for the reproducibility of FFQ for energy and macronutrienta

From: A meta-analysis of the reproducibility of food frequency questionnaires in nutritional epidemiological studies

Nutrient ICC SCC
Crude Energy-adjusted Crude Energy-adjusted
N ICC (95% CI) I2 N ICC (95% CI) I2 N ICC (95% CI) I2 N ICC (95% CI) I2
Energy 61 0.709 (0.652, 0.758) 96.3 N/A N/A N/A 106 0.649 (0.624, 0.673) 84.6 N/A N/A N/A
Protein 63 0.648 (0.612, 0.682) 88.3 25 0.600 (0.546, 0.650) 80.4 106 0.609 (0.584, 0.632) 80.6 64 0.558 (0.521, 0.593) 80.5
Fat 55 0.644 (0.599, 0.684) 91.1 19 0.564 (0.483, 0.634) 86.3 104 0.623 (0.599, 0.644) 78.4 56 0.555 (0.516, 0.593) 81.3
Plant fat 5 0.572 (0.461, 0.665) 60.0 2 0.615 (0.489, 0.715) 0 6 0.548 (0.468, 0.619) 62.0 2 0.580 (0.214, 0.803) 90.6
Animal fat 2 0.696 (0.462, 0.839) 74.7 2 0.725 (0.585, 0.822) 46.4 4 0.693 (0.661, 0.722) 0 2 0.575 (0.513, 0.630) 0
MUFA 41 0.641 (0.603, 0.675) 80.9 18 0.630 (0.557, 0.693) 83.7 50 0.612 (0.583, 0.639) 68.0 31 0.551 (0.495, 0.602) 81.3
PUFA 45 0.641 (0.575, 0.699) 94.6 45 0.573 (0.488, 0.646) 85.5 57 0.595 (0.566, 0.623) 73.4 31 0.521 (0.466, 0.572) 79.4
n-3 PUFA 2 0.703 (0.657, 0.745) 63.1 1 0.420 (0.187, 0.607) N/A 6 0.619 (0.573, 0.661) 59.8 5 0.469 (0.402, 0.532) 36.9
n-6 PUFA 2 0.727 (0.684, 0.764) 61.3 1 0.510 (0.295, 0.675) N/A 6 0.594 (0.563, 0.624) 18.3 5 0.441 (0.355, 0.519) 57.4
SFA 49 0.687 (0.612, 0.749) 96.6 19 0.639 (0.564, 0.704) 86.4 65 0.626 (0.598, 0.651) 76.6 37 0.567 (0.520, 0.610) 81.6
Linoleic acid 5 0.666 (0.491, 0.790) 93.3 3 0.685 (0.591, 0.760) 71.0 9 0.615 (0.552, 0.670) 80.6 9 0.577 (0.487, 0.653) 86.3
Linolenic acid 4 0.658 (0.498, 0.775) 88.9 2 0.630 (0.527, 0.714) 47.8 3 0.684 (0.576, 0.769) 86.3 4 0.642 (0.486, 0.759) 91.0
EPA 2 0.600 (0.511, 0.676) 0 N/A N/A N/A 3 0.785 (0.579, 0.896) 87 2 0.726 (0.349, 0.901) 87.4
DHA 2 0.611 (0.525, 0.686) 0 N/A N/A N/A 3 0.749 (0.616, 0.840) 67.4 N/A N/A N/A
Trans-fat 4 0.604 (0.453, 0.721) 79.3 2 0.479 (0.385, 0.562) 0 6 0.615 (0.419, 0.756) 91.0 2 0.586 (−0.07, 0.889) 93.8
Cholesterol 48 0.657 (0.610, 0.699) 90.5 25 0.618 (0.560, 0.670) 82.1 66 0.614 (0.584, 0.642) 79.5 37 0.556 (0.507, 0.603) 82.6
Lipid 4 0.701 (0.459, 0.846) 93.4 4 0.662 (0.370, 0.835) 94.5 6 0.551 (0.495, 0.603) 0 4 0.567 (0.327, 0.738) 83.7
Carbohydrate 64 0.680 (0.616, 0.735) 96.7 23 0.641 (0.566, 0.704) 90.1 101 0.637 (0.609, 0.663) 86.3 60 0.586 (0.547, 0.622) 83.5
Sucrose 4 0.633 (0.533, 0.715) 73.1 1 0.679 (0.607, 0.741) N/A 7 0.709 (0.644, 0.764) 67.4 1 0.632 (0.513, 0.726) N/A
Sugar 8 0.707 (0.618, 0.777) 81.4 1 0.779 (0.747, 0.808) N/A 11 0.689 (0.626, 0.743) 79.2 5 0.639 (0.516, 0.737) 88.6
Starch 2 0.510 (0.264, 0.693) 85.5 N/A N/A N/A 4 0.641 (0.604, 0.675) 0 2 0.606 (0.553, 0.654) 0
Fiber 54 0.683 (0.638, 0.723) 92.0 21 0.670 (0.595, 0.733) 91.1 87 0.639 (0.609, 0.667) 84.5 53 0.621 (0.581, 0.658) 83.3
Soluble fiber 2 0.780 (0.679, 0.852) 94.8 1 0.499 (0.340, 0.630) N/A 14 0.658 (0.603, 0.706) 78.8 10 0.590 (0.493, 0.672) 77.0
Insoluble fiber 2 0.784 (0.684, 0.855) 94.9 2 0.690 (0.616, 0.752) 84.6 12 0.649 (0.595, 0.698) 54.9 12 0.603 (0.527, 0.670) 74.1
Alcohol 22 0.803 (0.749, 0.847) 90.1 9 0.803 (0.725, 0.860) 88.7 47 0.851 (0.821, 0.877) 93.5 27 0.793 (0.746, 0.831) 91.0
  1. aCI confidence interval, I2 inconsistency index, N/A not available