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Table 1 Sample and study characteristics

From: Effects of physical activity programs on sleep outcomes in older adults: a systematic review

ArticleSample sizeAge (range and mean)SettingDuration exercise programData collectionIntervention groupControl groupSleep measurement
Stevenson and Topp (1990) [68]n = 72 (intervention group: moderate intensity exercise n = 39, control group: low intensity exercise n = 33)60-81y (mean age 63,9y)community dwelling older adults9 monthsmonth 0 - month 4,5 - month 9Supervised exercise session: stretching, cycling, slow walking and stretching, moderate intensity 60–70% HRR (3/week, 55–60 min)low intensity exercise group as control (same exercise as intervention group, but lower intensity 30–40% HRR)self-reported Likert type instrument developed by Topp (1986)
Naylor et al. (2000) [69]n = 23 (intervention group n = 14, control group n = 9)intervention group: 65-92y (mean age 75,2y); control group: 66-92y (mean age 71,2y)homes or appartement complexes14 daysday 0 - day 14Light physical activity, stretching, cooling down stretching exercises (1x/day, 45 min)usual daily activitiespolysomnography
Frye et al. (2007) [70]n = 74 (intervention group 1 Tai Chi n = 23, intervention group 2 low impact exercise n = 28 and control group n = 21)52-82y (mean age 69,2y)community dwelling older adults12 weeksweek 0 - week 12Tai Chi and low impact exercises
(3x/week, 60 min)
usual daily activitiesPSQI (only subscale sleep disturbances)
Chen and Tseng (2008) [71]n = 1460-86y (mean age 68,93y)senior activity center4 weeksweek 0 - week 4Silver yoga exercise program
(3x/week, 70 min)
no control groupPSQI
Chen et al. (2009) [72]n = 128 (intervention group, n = 62, control group, n = 66)60-75y (mean age 69,20y)senior activity centres6 monthsmonth 0 - month 3 - month 6Silver yoga exercise program
(3x/week, 70 min)
waitlist control group, usual daily activitiesPSQI
Chen et al. (2010) [73]n = 55 (intervention n = 31 and control, n = 24)(mean age 75,40y)assisted living facility6 monthsmonth 0 - month 3 - month 6Silver yoga exercise program
(3x/week, 70 min)
usual daily activitiesPSQI
Hosseini et al. (2011) [74]n = 56 (intervention group n = 27 and control group n = 29)60-83y (mean age 68,74y)nursing home12 weeksweek 0 - week 12Tai Chi
(3x/week,20–25 min)
usual daily activitiesPSQI
Chen et al. (2012) [75]n = 55 (intervention group n = 27, control group n = 28)intervention group: 60-83y (mean age 71,75y)rural community setting12 weeksweek 0 - week 4 - week 8 - week 12Baduanjin exercise program (3x/week, 30 min)usual daily activitiesPSQI
Nguyen and Kruse (2012) [76]n = 96 (intervention group n = 48, control group n = 48)60-79y (mean age 68,9y)community dwelling older adults6 monthsmonth 0 - month 6 - follow upTai chi training (2x/week, 60 min)usual daily activitiesPSQI
Oudegeest-Sander et al. (2013) [77]n = 21 (intervention group n = 11, young control group n = 10)intervention group: (mean age 69y)
young control group: (mean age 27y)
local community setting12 monthsmonth 0 - month 6 - month 12Cycling exercise training, 70–85% HR
(3/week, 45 min)
usual daily activitiesaccelerometers: Sesewear pro 3 armband SWA
Hariprasad et al. (2013) [78]n = 87 (intervention group n = 44, control group n = 43)intervention group: (mean age 75,74y)
control group: (mean age 74,78y)
nursing home6 monthsmonth 0 - month 6Yoga program
(1x/dag, 60 min)
waitlist controlPSQI
Melancon et al. (2015) [79]n = 1357-70y (mean age 64y)community dwelling older adults16 weeksweek 0 - week 16Aerobic exercise: progressively increased intensity brisk walking (3x/week, 45 min + 5–10 min warm-up and cool down)waitlist control(1) polysomnography and
(2) PSQI
Chan and Chen (2016) [80]n = 169 (intervention group, n = 84 and control group, n = 85)65-87y (mean age 71,28y)senior activity centres6 monthsmonth 0 - month 3 - month 6Senior elastic band exercise program: warm-up, aerobic motion, static stretching (3x/week, 40 min)usual daily activitiesPSQI
Curi et al. (2018) [81]n = 61 (intervention group, n = 31, control group, n = 30)60-74y intervention group: (mean age 64,25y)
control group: (mean age 63,75y)
senior activity center16 weeksweek 0 - week 16Pilates (1x/week, 60 min)usual daily activitiesPSQI