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Table 1 Sample and study characteristics

From: Effects of physical activity programs on sleep outcomes in older adults: a systematic review

Article Sample size Age (range and mean) Setting Duration exercise program Data collection Intervention group Control group Sleep measurement
Stevenson and Topp (1990) [68] n = 72 (intervention group: moderate intensity exercise n = 39, control group: low intensity exercise n = 33) 60-81y (mean age 63,9y) community dwelling older adults 9 months month 0 - month 4,5 - month 9 Supervised exercise session: stretching, cycling, slow walking and stretching, moderate intensity 60–70% HRR (3/week, 55–60 min) low intensity exercise group as control (same exercise as intervention group, but lower intensity 30–40% HRR) self-reported Likert type instrument developed by Topp (1986)
Naylor et al. (2000) [69] n = 23 (intervention group n = 14, control group n = 9) intervention group: 65-92y (mean age 75,2y); control group: 66-92y (mean age 71,2y) homes or appartement complexes 14 days day 0 - day 14 Light physical activity, stretching, cooling down stretching exercises (1x/day, 45 min) usual daily activities polysomnography
Frye et al. (2007) [70] n = 74 (intervention group 1 Tai Chi n = 23, intervention group 2 low impact exercise n = 28 and control group n = 21) 52-82y (mean age 69,2y) community dwelling older adults 12 weeks week 0 - week 12 Tai Chi and low impact exercises
(3x/week, 60 min)
usual daily activities PSQI (only subscale sleep disturbances)
Chen and Tseng (2008) [71] n = 14 60-86y (mean age 68,93y) senior activity center 4 weeks week 0 - week 4 Silver yoga exercise program
(3x/week, 70 min)
no control group PSQI
Chen et al. (2009) [72] n = 128 (intervention group, n = 62, control group, n = 66) 60-75y (mean age 69,20y) senior activity centres 6 months month 0 - month 3 - month 6 Silver yoga exercise program
(3x/week, 70 min)
waitlist control group, usual daily activities PSQI
Chen et al. (2010) [73] n = 55 (intervention n = 31 and control, n = 24) (mean age 75,40y) assisted living facility 6 months month 0 - month 3 - month 6 Silver yoga exercise program
(3x/week, 70 min)
usual daily activities PSQI
Hosseini et al. (2011) [74] n = 56 (intervention group n = 27 and control group n = 29) 60-83y (mean age 68,74y) nursing home 12 weeks week 0 - week 12 Tai Chi
(3x/week,20–25 min)
usual daily activities PSQI
Chen et al. (2012) [75] n = 55 (intervention group n = 27, control group n = 28) intervention group: 60-83y (mean age 71,75y) rural community setting 12 weeks week 0 - week 4 - week 8 - week 12 Baduanjin exercise program (3x/week, 30 min) usual daily activities PSQI
Nguyen and Kruse (2012) [76] n = 96 (intervention group n = 48, control group n = 48) 60-79y (mean age 68,9y) community dwelling older adults 6 months month 0 - month 6 - follow up Tai chi training (2x/week, 60 min) usual daily activities PSQI
Oudegeest-Sander et al. (2013) [77] n = 21 (intervention group n = 11, young control group n = 10) intervention group: (mean age 69y)
young control group: (mean age 27y)
local community setting 12 months month 0 - month 6 - month 12 Cycling exercise training, 70–85% HR
(3/week, 45 min)
usual daily activities accelerometers: Sesewear pro 3 armband SWA
Hariprasad et al. (2013) [78] n = 87 (intervention group n = 44, control group n = 43) intervention group: (mean age 75,74y)
control group: (mean age 74,78y)
nursing home 6 months month 0 - month 6 Yoga program
(1x/dag, 60 min)
waitlist control PSQI
Melancon et al. (2015) [79] n = 13 57-70y (mean age 64y) community dwelling older adults 16 weeks week 0 - week 16 Aerobic exercise: progressively increased intensity brisk walking (3x/week, 45 min + 5–10 min warm-up and cool down) waitlist control (1) polysomnography and
(2) PSQI
Chan and Chen (2016) [80] n = 169 (intervention group, n = 84 and control group, n = 85) 65-87y (mean age 71,28y) senior activity centres 6 months month 0 - month 3 - month 6 Senior elastic band exercise program: warm-up, aerobic motion, static stretching (3x/week, 40 min) usual daily activities PSQI
Curi et al. (2018) [81] n = 61 (intervention group, n = 31, control group, n = 30) 60-74y intervention group: (mean age 64,25y)
control group: (mean age 63,75y)
senior activity center 16 weeks week 0 - week 16 Pilates (1x/week, 60 min) usual daily activities PSQI