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Table 2 Characteristics of Participants by App Intervention Group (Traffic Light Label, ‘High in’ Warning Label, Star Rating and Control (NFt))

From: A randomized controlled trial examining consumers’ perceptions and opinions on using different versions of a FoodFlip© smartphone application for delivery of nutrition information

Characteristics Traffic Light (n = 475) High in Warning (n = 478) Star Rating (n = 480) Control (NFt) (n = 474) p-value
Number of participants who used the app in each condition 475 (95%) 478 (95%) 480 (96%) 474 (96%)  
Age (years) (mean (SD)) 39 ± 13 39 ± 12 40 ± 13 40 ± 12 0.71
Gender
 Male 213 (45%) 220 (46%) 225 (47%) 242 (51%) 0.52
 Female 261 (55%) 257 (54%) 255 (53%) 231 (49%)
Ethnicity
 White 342 (72%) 329 (69%) 316 (66%) 334 (70%) 0.07
 Other 132 (28%) 141 (29%) 153 (32%) 130 (27%)
 Not stated 1 (0.2%) 8 (2%) 11 (2%) 10 (2%)
Calculated BMI1
 < 18.5 13 (3%) 10 (2%) 25 (5%) 10 (2%) 0.18
 18.5 to 24.9 185 (42%) 185 (42%) 190 (42%) 175 (39%)
 25 to 29.9 123 (28%) 133 (30%) 134 (30%) 147 (33%)
 > 29.9 123 (28%) 120 (27%) 100 (22%) 115 (26%)
 Not stated 31 (6%) 30 (6%) 31 (6%) 29 (6%)
Education
 Did not graduate high school 12 (2.5%) 5 (1%) 7 (1.5%) 11 (2%) 0.54
 High school graduate certificate/equivalent 79 (17%) 75 (16%) 87 (18%) 67 (14%)
 Trades certificate/diploma 22 (4%) 30 (6%) 20 (4%) 24 (5%)
 Community/technical college or CEGEP 123 (26%) 124 (26%) 127 (27%) 122 (26%)
 University (undergraduate degree) 168 (35%) 189 (40%) 184 (38%) 180 (38%)
 Post-graduate degree (Master, PhD) 70 (15%) 54 (11%) 54 (11%) 68 (14%)
Newest Vital Sign Score (max 6)
 Low (0–1) 49 (10%) 53 (11%) 42 (8%) 48 (10%) 0.13
 Likely Low (2, 3) 58 (12%) 46 (10%) 73 (15%) 72 (15%)
 Adequate (4–6) 367 (77%) 378 (79%) 364 (76%) 354 (75%)
Income
 Under $49,999 129 (27%) 127 (27%) 122 (25%) 131 (28%) 0.04
 $50,000 to $99,999 177 (37%) 180 (38%) 206 (43%) 154 (32%)
 Over $100,000 132 (28%) 129 (27%) 120 (25%) 161 (34%)
 Don’t know 6 (1%) 13 (3%) 6 (1%) 3 (0.6%)
 Refused 31 (7%) 29 (6%) 26 (5%) 25 (5%)
  1. Data presented as n (%) unless otherwise indicated. There were no significant differences between intervention groups for age, gender, ethnicity, BMI, education, health literacy score (measured by newest vital sign) and income, where p < 0.01 was considered statistically significant. Body Mass Index1 (BMI) calculated from self-reported height and weight data provided by the participants where underweight (< 18.5), normal weight (18.5 to 24.9), overweight (25 to 29.9) and obese (> 29.9)