Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study population according to energy-adjusted ultra-processed food consumption in 91,891 participants

From: Association of ultra-processed food consumption with cardiovascular mortality in the US population: long-term results from a large prospective multicenter study

Characteristics Quintiles of energy-adjusted ultra-processed food consumption, range (mean), servings/day
< 0.5 (0.1) 0.5–< 1.1 (0.8) 1.1–< 2.1 (1.6) 2.1–≤4.0 (3.0) > 4.0 (8.2) Ptrend
No. of participants 18,378 18,378 18,379 18,377 18,379  
Age (years) 66.3 ± 5.7 66.1 ± 5.7 65.6 ± 5.7 64.9 ± 5.6 63.7 ± 5.3 < 0.001
Male 5976 (32.5) 7396 (40.2) 9058 (49.3) 9592 (52.2) 10,521 (57.2) < 0.001
Married 13,488 (73.4) 14,489 (78.8) 14,833 (80.7) 14,829 (80.7) 14,507 (78.9) < 0.001
History of diabetes 836 (4.5) 842 (4.6) 882 (4.8) 1071 (5.8) 1693 (9.2) < 0.001
History of hypertension 5066 (27.6) 5433 (29.6) 5451 (29.7) 5723 (31.1) 6266 (34.1) < 0.001
Alcohol consumption (g/day) 13.7 ± 38.5 8.6 ± 19.7 8.5 ± 18.8 8.4 ± 18.8 8.6 ± 24.1 < 0.001
Energy intake from diet (kcal/day) 1440.6 ± 646.6 1516.5 ± 555.6 1722.0 ± 628.5 1880.6 ± 724.4 2123.0 ± 868.9 < 0.001
Physical activity (min/week) a 133.2 ± 127.6 124.3 ± 121.7 123.2 ± 120.7 122.5 ± 123.0 123.6 ± 127.4 < 0.001
Healthy Eating Index-2005 63.9 ± 11.7 61.4 ± 10.6 59.5 ± 10.5 58.5 ± 10.5 56.7 ± 10.8 < 0.001
Race
 Non-Hispanic white 15,991 (87.0) 16,925 (92.1) 16,910 (92.0) 16,907 (92.0) 16,815 (91.5) < 0.001
 Non-Hispanic black 449 (2.4) 425 (2.3) 559 (3.0) 711 (3.9) 837 (4.6)
 Hispanic 322 (1.8) 240 (1.3) 252 (1.4) 270 (1.5) 276 (1.5)
 Others b 1616 (8.8) 788 (4.3) 658 (3.6) 489 (2.7) 451 (2.5)
Educational level
 College below 10,870 (59.1) 11,391 (62.0) 11,701 (63.7) 11,913 (64.8) 12,265 (66.7) < 0.001
 College graduate 3573 (19.4) 3437 (18.7) 3235 (17.6) 3154 (17.2) 2968 (16.1)
 Postgraduate 3935 (21.4) 3550 (19.3) 3443 (18.7) 3310 (18.0) 3146 (17.1)
Smoking status
 Current 1432 (7.8) 1572 (8.6) 1617 (8.8) 1691 (9.2) 2099 (11.4) < 0.001
 Former 7614 (41.4) 7484 (40.7) 7563 (41.2) 7679 (41.8) 8039 (43.7)
 Never 9332 (50.8) 9322 (50.7) 9199 (50.1) 9007 (49.0) 8241 (44.8)
Body mass index (kg/m2)
  < 18.5 243 (1.3) 134 (0.7) 80 (0.4) 84 (0.5) 77 (0.4) < 0.001
 18.5–24.9 8650 (47.7) 6981 (38.5) 6053 (33.4) 5365 (29.5) 4193 (23.2)
 25.0–30.0 6570 (36.2) 7591 (41.8) 8100 (44.6) 8205 (45.2) 7921 (43.8)
  > 30 2671 (14.7) 3439 (19.0) 3910 (21.6) 4503 (24.8) 5910 (32.7)
Food consumption
 Red meat (g/day) 37.4 ± 34.1 50.0 ± 37.0 62.5 ± 46.2 71.3 ± 55.2 85.2 ± 67.5 < 0.001
 Fruit (g/day) 307.1 ± 248.4 263.6 ± 191.9 261.2 ± 190.4 268.2 ± 201.1 268.1 ± 241.0 < 0.001
 Vegetable (g/day) 288.9 ± 211.1 264.7 ± 167.8 275.2 ± 168.0 287.8 ± 178.6 300.1 ± 195.4 < 0.001
 Dietary fiber (g/day) 17.8 ± 9.4 16.6 ± 7.6 17.7 ± 7.8 18.6 ± 8.2 19.3 ± 8.9 < 0.001
 Whole grain (servings/day) 1.1 ± 0.8 1.1 ± 0.8 1.2 ± 0.8 1.2 ± 0.8 1.2 ± 0.9 < 0.001
 Dairy (cups/day) 1.3 ± 1.2 1.3 ± 1.1 1.4 ± 1.1 1.4 ± 1.1 1.5 ± 1.2 < 0.001
Nutrient intake
 Cholesterol (mg/day) 154.9 ± 108.2 181.3 ± 105.1 211.8 ± 122.3 232.8 ± 137.3 263.8 ± 162.0 < 0.001
 Saturated fatty acids (g/day) 14.0 ± 8.1 17.0 ± 8.4 20.4 ± 10.2 22.7 ± 12.3 25.9 ± 14.4 < 0.001
 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (g/day) 11.1 ± 6.3 12.4 ± 6.0 14.3 ± 6.9 15.6 ± 7.8 17.2 ± 9.1 < 0.001
 Carbohydrate (g/day) 187.5 ± 79.9 193.7 ± 70.6 216.3 ± 76.2 236.6 ± 86.3 269.6 ± 111.4 < 0.001
 Fat (g/day) 46.0 ± 24.4 53.8 ± 24.5 63.7 ± 29.4 70.3 ± 34.9 79.4 ± 41.0 < 0.001
 Protein (g/day) 56.2 ± 25.4 59.2 ± 24.0 66.4 ± 27.3 71.7 ± 31.2 79.0 ± 36.0 < 0.001
 Added sugar (tsp/day) 7.1 ± 4.0 9.2 ± 4.4 11.7 ± 5.6 14.2 ± 7.3 19.9 ± 14.1 < 0.001
 Sodium (mg/day) 2171.7 ± 934.5 2404.5 ± 919.2 2735.1 ± 1058.3 2980.1 ± 1237.3 3318.3 ± 1457.8 < 0.001
 Magnesium (mg/day) 311.1 ± 134.3 299.4 ± 113.0 319.1 ± 118.8 332.9 ± 128.0 348.4 ± 138.8 < 0.001
 Potassium (mg/day) 3102.0 ± 1260.0 3038.1 ± 1110.3 3228.2 ± 1163.6 3365.9 ± 1261.7 3490.7 ± 1411.7 < 0.001
 Calcium (mg/day) 688.8 ± 410.3 686.2 ± 368.2 741.0 ± 380.5 783.3 ± 398.7 847.9 ± 444.4 < 0.001
  1. Values are mean (standard deviation) or counts (percentage) as indicated
  2. a Total time of moderate to vigorous physical activities per week
  3. b “Others” refers to Asian, Pacific Islander, or American Indian