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Table 3 Subgroup analyses on the association between energy-adjusted ultra-processed food consumption (daily serving) and cardiovascular mortality

From: Association of ultra-processed food consumption with cardiovascular mortality in the US population: long-term results from a large prospective multicenter study

Subgroup variable Overall cardiovascular mortality Heart disease mortality Cerebrovascular disease mortality
HRquintile 5 vs. 1 (95% CI) a Pinteraction HRquintile 5 vs. 1 (95% CI) a Pinteraction HRquintile 5 vs. 1 (95% CI) a Pinteraction
Age (years)
  ≥ 60 1.47 (1.33, 1.61) 0.066 1.64 (1.47, 1.84) 0.182 0.90 (0.72, 1.13) 0.486
  < 60 1.81 (1.28, 2.56) 1.89 (1.30, 2.77) 1.81 (0.70, 4.68)
Sex
 Male 1.23 (1.08, 1.40) < 0.001 1.39 (1.20, 1.61) 0.001 0.75 (0.56, 1.02) 0.140
 Female 1.93 (1.68, 2.21) 2.17 (1.84, 2.55) 1.15 (0.85, 1.58)
Body mass index (kg/m2)
  ≥ 25 1.53 (1.36, 1.72) 0.814 1.68 (1.47, 1.91) 0.935 1.09 (0.83, 1.43) 0.357
  < 25 1.45 (1.23, 1.70) 1.72 (1.42, 2.09) 0.69 (0.47, 1.03)
Smoking status
 Current or former 1.44 (1.28, 1.63) 0.260 1.61 (1.40, 1.86) 0.315 0.94 (0.71, 1.24) 0.532
 Never 1.61 (1.39, 1.85) 1.79 (1.52, 2.12) 0.96 (0.69, 1.34)
Alcohol consumption (g/day) b
 No, light or moderate 1.58 (1.43, 1.75) 0.144 1.75 (1.55, 1.97) 0.417 1.03 (0.82, 1.30) 0.484
 Heavy 1.11 (0.86, 1.42) 1.32 (0.99, 1.76) 0.60 (0.33, 1.11)
  1. a Adjusted for age (years), sex (male, female), race (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, others), educational level (college below, college graduate, postgraduate), marital status (married, widowed, divorced, separated, never married), study center (10 categories), aspirin use (yes, no), history of hypertension (yes, no), history of diabetes (yes, no), smoking status (current, former, never), alcohol consumption (g/day), body mass index (< 18.5, 18.5–24.9, 25.0–30.0, > 30.0 kg/m2), physical activity (min/week), and energy intake from diet (kcal/day). In subgroup analyses stratified by sex and smoking status, hazard ratios were not adjusted for the stratification factor
  2. b Light, moderate, and heavy alcohol consumption are defined as ≤6 g/day, > 6–28 g/day for male and > 6–14 g/day for female, and > 28 g/day for male and > 14 g/day for female, respectively