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Table 4 Propensity score adjusted changes in Fruit and Vegetable (FV) intake, skin carotenoids, and sugary beverage intake over time, with propensity scores, and using only customers from the six stores with data for multiple years. These models are adjusted for age, gender, race, education, employment, income, and shopping frequency, except when stratified by shopping frequency

From: A four-year observational study to examine the dietary impact of the North Carolina Healthy Food Small Retailer Program, 2017–2020

Outcome HFSRP Year Overall effects
  2017 2018 2019 2020 Year HFSRP Year x HFSRP
AMONG ALL CUSTOMERS (n = 1222):   Means (SE)     P (df = 3) P (df = 1) P (df = 3)
National Cancer Institute FV Screener,21 servings/day N = 1172 No 3.5 (0.33) 3.3 (0.36) 3.4 (0.35) 4.1 (0.36) 0.958 0.222 0.050
Yes 3.4 (0.38) 3.2 (0.37) 3.3 (0.36) 2.7 (0.37)    
p-net   0.875 0.912 0.034    
2-item screener, FV servings/day20 No 3.9 (0.29) 3.1 (0.31) 3.4 (0.31) 3.4 (0.31) 0.046 0.341 0.220
N = 1185 Yes 3.6 (0.32) 3.2 (0.32) 4.3 (0.31) 3.8 (0.31)    
p-net   0.444 0.040 0.193    
Veggie Meter® skin carotenoid score No 228.2 (7.22) 239.7 (7.53) 227.8 (7.37) 218.7 (7.40) 0.159 0.383 0.186
N = 1167 Yes 239.6 (7.76) 228.1 (7.87) 242.9 (7.47) 226.8 (7.49)    
p-net   0.078 0.784 0.794    
Sugary beverage servings/day No 2.0 (0.22) 2.0 (0.24) 1.7 (0.24) 1.6 (0.24) 0.189 0.498 0.944
N = 1203 Yes 1.7 (0.26) 1.8 (0.26) 1.6 (0.25) 1.5 (0.25)    
p-net   0.838 0.576 0.616    
AMONG CUSTOMERS WHO SHOPPED IN THE STORE 1–2 TIMES/WEEK OR LESS (n = 458)
National Cancer Institute FV Screener, 21 servings/day N = 430 No 3.6 (0.50) 2.5 (0.66) 2.9 (0.50) 4.2 (0.53) 0.175 0.995 0.015
Yes 3.5 (0.45) 4.1 (0.43) 2.7 (0.45) 2.9 (0.44)    
p-net   0.057 0.978 0.129    
2-item screener, FV servings/day20 No 4.2 (0.51) 3. 6 (0.67) 3.3 (0.50) 4.4 (0.49) 0.197 0.180 0.253
N = 442 Yes 3.8 (0.41) 3.7 (0.38) 4.7 (0.42) 4.8 (0.39)    
p-net   0.589 0.048 0.326    
Veggie Meter® skin carotenoid score No 253.8 (12.7) 245.4 (16.9) 237.4 (12.3) 226.6 (12.5) 0.261 0.619 0.663
N = 429 Yes 245.6 (10.8) 225.0 (10.8) 239.9 (11.1) 232.9 (10.6)    
p-net   0.592 0.610 0.479    
Sugary beverage servings/day No 1.7 (0.31) 1.7 (0.41) 1.1 (0.30) 1.2 (0.30) 0.805 0.285 0.261
N = 444 Yes 1.2 (0.26) 0.9 (0.25) 1.2 (0.27) 1.4 (0.25)    
p-net   0.731 0.240 0.149    
AMONG CUSTOMERS WHO SHOPPED IN THE STORE 3–6 TIMES/WEEK OR MORE (n = 764)
National Cancer Institute FV Screener,21 servings/day No 3.5 (0.43) 3.4 (0.45) 3.7 (0.47) 3.9 (0.47) 0.245 0.173 0.322
N = 709 Yes 3.2 (0.55) 2.2 (0.58) 3.7 (0.53) 2.7 (0.54)    
p-net   0.288 0.737 0.266    
2-item screener, FV servings/day20 No 3.9 (0.34) 3.0 (0.33) 3.6 (0.36) 3.0 (0.35) 0.046 0.888 0.634
N = 709 Yes 3.3 (0.42) 2.9 (0.44) 3. 9 (0.40) 3.2 (0.40)    
p-net   0.547 0.221 0.314    
Veggie Meter®, skin carotenoid score No 217.6 (9.8) 234.2 (10.3) 222.7 (10.8) 213.5 (10.7) 0.097 0.274 0.549
N = 706 Yes 238.5 (12.7) 237.4 (13.3) 246.5 (12.2) 219.6 (12.5)    
p-net   0.316 0.875 0.419    
Sugary beverage servings/day No 2.2 (0.28) 2.1 (0.30) 1.9 (0.31) 1.8 (0.31) 0.026 0.810 0.286
N = 725 Yes 2.2 (0.37) 2.5 (0.38) 1.7 (0.36) 1.3 (0.36)    
p-net   0.281 0.793 0.397