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Table 1 Perceived benefits and risks of PA (% patients citing the benefit/risk)

From: Factors influencing physical activity participation among people living with or beyond cancer: a systematic scoping review

Cancer type Country, no. of participants, treatment stage Study design Perceived benefits Perceived risks Reference
Physiological benefits
(A) Fitness, (B) Strength, (C) Promote health & recovery, (D) Boost energy, (E) Improve survival, (F) Prevent reoccurrence, & (G) Weight loss
Psychosocial benefits
(H) Relieve stress, (I) Better state of mind, (J) Socialization, (K) Quality sleep, & (L) Self-esteem
(A) Fatigue, (B) Pain, & (C) Risk of injury
(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) (G) (H) (I) (J) (K) (L) (A) (B) (C)
Breast Canada, 9, post-ttt QI     +    + + +    +     [40]
Canada, 8, during ttt QI +    +      +   + +     [49]
Canada, 12, mixed FG +   + (25) + (8) + (17)    + + (17)    + + + (17) + [50]
Canada, 12, post-ttt QI    +   + + + + + +       [41]
NZ, 20 women FG +          +       [51]
Norway, 27 women, during ttt FG +   +    +   + +    +     [52]
Sweden, 16, on ttt QI + + + +     + + +   +     [53]
US, 60 women QI + (28)    + (15)     + (5) + (18)        [54]
US, 23 women, during ttt CS   + (91) + (91) + (78)    + (91) + (87) + (83) + (52)   + (78)   + (30) + (4) [55]
Colo-rectal Australia,10, post-ttt QI + + + +     + +    +     [56]
Canada, 600, post-ttt CS + (70)   + (66) + (61) + (58) + (41) + (52) + (54) + (44)        [57]
Canada, 30, mixed QI + (75) + (56) + (63) + (50)    + (50) + (24) + (31)   + (50) + (65)     [58]
Sweden, 17 patients QI    +              [59]
Endom-etrial UK, 16 women, post-ttt QI +   + +      +        [60]
Kidney Canada, 482, post-ttt CS + (26) + (25) + (22) + (23)    + (49)     + (3) + (24)     [61]
Leuke-mia US, 6, post-ttt QI    + +     +   + + +     [62]
Lung Australia, 7, post-ttt FG + + +      + +        [63]
Denmark, 19, post-ttt QI + + + +      +    +     [64]
US, 43, pre-ttt CS + (13) + (67) + (18) + (13)          + (48) + (29) +(14) [65]
Multiple myeloma Australia, 24 patients, post-ttt QI    +     + + + +   +     [66]
Ovarian Australia, 12, mixed QI    +     +          [67]
Prostate Australia, 18, post-ttt QI    + +    + + + +   +     [68]
Ireland, 20 men QI +   + +    +   +        [31]
Variousa Australia, 9, on ttt QI/FG   + +       +    +     [69]
Australia, 15, mixed QI + + + +    +   + +   +     [70]
Australia, 102, post-ttt CS   + (88) + (96) + (44)   + (63)   + (68)   + (61)       [71]
Canada, 788 patients CS     + (76) + (90)            [22]
Canada, 66, mixed CS +   + +      + + +      [72]
Canada, 13, post-ttt QI   + + +   +   + + +   +     [73]
England, 59, mixed CS + (40)   + (40)       + (10) + (16)   + (10)     [74, 75]
Germany, 905 patients CS + (58)   + (68)          + (61)     [76]
Ireland, 41, mixed FG +   + +   +   + + + + +     [77]
Italy, 12 females, post-ttt FG          +    +     [78]
Netherlands, 13, post-ttt QI + +   +     + + +   + +    [79]
Norway, 7, on ttt QI   + +     + + +        [80]
NZ, 25, mixed stages QI + + +    +    +        [81]
Sweden, 18, during ttt FG + + + +    +   + +   + + +   [24]
UK, 6, post-ttt QI + + + +    + + + +   +     [82]
UK, 19, post-ttt QI    +    + +   +        [37]
UK, 16, mixed QI   + + +         +     [83]
UK, 26, mixed FG    +     + + +    + + + + [84]
UK, 456 patients CS    + (87)          + (54)     [43]
US, 20, during ttt QI + + + +     +     +     [85]
US, 25, post-ttt FG    +    +           [86]
  1. Abbreviations: CS cross-sectional, FG focus groups, MM mixed-method, NZ New Zealand, PA physical activity, QI qualitative interview, ttt treatment. a The study included various mixed cancer types