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Table 4 Age-dependent digital media use trajectories by country of residence and risk of developing metabolic syndrome a

From: Media use trajectories and risk of metabolic syndrome in European children and adolescents: the IDEFICS/I.Family cohort

Metabolic outcome b DM use Italy Estonia Cyprus Belgium Sweden Germany Hungary Spain
  Mean intercept (h/day) 2.0258 2.3790 2.1022 1.7932 2.0210 1.6706 1.7521 1.5931
  Mean slope (h/day/year) 0.1144 0.1785 0.1583 0.1483 0.1746 0.1493 0.1298 0.1012
   Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI)
Abdominal obesity Slope c 0.90 (0.68–1.20) 1.21 (0.86-1.70) 1.03 (0.75–1.41) 0.74 (0.46–1.20) 1.69 (1.05–3.23) 0.93 (0.63–1.36) 1.31 (0.90–1.92) 0.99 (0.67–1.46)
Intercept 1.28 (0.96–1.69) 1.62 (1.17–2.23) 1.53 (1.11–2.09) 2.07 (1.21–3.54) 1.84 (1.05–3.23) 1.78 (1.24–2.57) 1.13 (0.75–1.73) 2.11 (1.32–2.38)
Elevated BP d Slope 1.28 (0.94–1.74) 0.98 (0.68–1.41) 1.12 (0.73–1.70) 1.87 (1.16–3.02) 0.68 (0.40–1.18) 0.79 (0.47–1.32) 1.17 (0.84–1.64) 0.71 (0.49–1.03)
Intercept 0.96 (0.72–1.28) 1.28 (0.90–1.81) 1.24 (0.83–1.85) 1.66 (0.99–2.80) 1.04 (0.52–2.07) 0.86 (0.50–1.47) 1.05 (0.73–1.50) 0.88 (0.55–1.41)
Dyslipidemia Slope 0.96 (0.67–1.17) 1.00 (0.63–1.58) 1.66 (1.05–2.63) 0.61 (0.18–2.04) 1.19 (0.73–1.94) 0.86 (0.50–1.50) 0.86 (0.56–1.30) 0.77 (0.45–1.30)
Intercept 1.10 (0.80–1.52) 1.46 (0.94–2.28) 1.09 (0.69–1.73) 2.37 (0.52–10.8) 1.72 (0.92–3.19) 1.37 (0.80–2.33) 1.30 (0.83–2.03) 1.37 (0.75–2.52)
Insulin resistance Slope 0.86 (0.61–1.22) 1.36 (0.92–2.01) 1.45 (0.96–2.16) 0.73 (0.40–1.36) 0.94 (0.63–1.40) 1.05 (0.63–1.75) 0.81 (0.53–1.22) 0.98 (0.64–1.50)
Intercept 0.84 (0.60–1.17) 1.42 (0.97–2.08) 1.20 (0.80–1.80) 1.51 (0.72–3.15) 1.87 (1.12–3.12) 1.58 (0.95–2.62) 1.12 (0.70–1.77) 0.73 (0.43–1.24)
MetS Slope 0.99 (0.66–1.49) 1.69 (0.87–3.23) 2.66 (1.38–5.14) 2.08 ( 0.37–11.58) 1.29 (0.54–3.08) 0.82 (0.25–2.66) 1.34 (0.74–2.41) 0.91 (0.48–1.73)
Intercept 0.95 (0.66–1.38) 1.78 (0.97–3.24) 1.66 (0.94–2.83) 1.14 (0.14–8.86) 2.78 (1.04–7.41) 4.35 (1.68–11.29) 2.38 (1.33–4.25) 1.57 (0.76–3.25)
  1. a Models are adjusted for age (continuous) sex, pubertal status, parental ISCED, HDAS, unhealthy snack intake, observation period and abdominal obesity (when not part of the outcome). The number of participants varied across countries due to missing values for different metabolic outcomes. Bold significance is provided via confidence limits
  2. b The reference category for the metabolic outcomes is below the monitoring level
  3. c Slope was used as a categorical variable (above vs. below population mean random slope)
  4. d BP blood pressure, DM digital media, MetS metabolic syndrome