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Table 3 Strategies to implementing and sustaining FMS interventions

From: Enhancing the implementation and sustainability of fundamental movement skill interventions in the UK and Ireland: lessons from collective intelligence engagement with stakeholders

Original Label for the Strategy Cluster Adapted Label Strategy Cluster Implementation strategies falling under each strategy cluster
Engage Consumers* Engage teachers, students, school leaders, researchers Report impact from the programme and disseminate knowledge in relation to quality of life, health, and learning outcomesc
Promote publicity and impact of the intervention programme to potential stakeholders and build reciprocal relationships with them to involve them in future researche
Expand programme reach to parents and mobilise parental engagement in interventionsf
Use Evaluative and Iterative Strategies No change In advance of programme implementation, generate shared, measurable goals in a collaboration between schools, researchers and policy makers, and build coalitions and partner relationships to support implementation effortsc
Evaluate, adapt, and create the physical structures, equipment, and school resources to support programme implementationc
Improve and change the current evaluation practice to incorporate more appropriate techniques, change the priority of what determines an intervention success and conduct more long term and follow-up evaluation to monitor sustainabilityb
Conduct more rigorous and comprehensive evaluation including pilot research, long term follow-up that yields sustainability data, and evaluation of what determines intervention successm
Conduct research on participant understanding of and engagement in intervention programmes and create solutions to overcome perceived barriers and misconceptionsm
Change Infrastructure No change Change school ethos and values around PE through learning workshops and mission documents that promote awareness and understanding of FMS and its impact on core school outcomes including cognitive and social skillsc
Use and promote a whole-school approach to embed movement opportunities throughout the whole school day, including curricular, extracurricular, cross-curricular, active transport, and homeworkc
Establish a multi-sector task force to develop, implement, and evaluate child health and development policies and programmes that support PE in schools by directing appropriate funding and resources to local councilsb
Develop structures to support programme sustainability, including developing knowledge hub and partner relationships, educating undergraduates, and promoting programme integration into curriculumb
Establish specific, mandated targets on FMS and PA and demand these to be achieved and reported by schools, in order to direct intervention time and resources and encourage programme uptake by schoolsc
Challenge the idea of correct technique in children’s movement and encourage children to explore under guidancef
Encourage integration of programmes and interventions with pre-existing school curriculum and syllablesm
Integrate intervention science and associated field work in undergraduate teaching programmese
Create norms of knowledge building and continuous learning to support students, teachers, parents, and coachesf
Adapt and Tailor to Context No change Develop theory-based interventions and resources as well as adapt pedagogical approachesb
Apply and prioritise PE/skills assessment for children and provide context-specific feedback to allow them to reflect on their progress and performanceg
Develop Stakeholder Interrelationships   Build collaborations between research, schools and policy holders to promote joined-up thinkingb
No change Conduct stakeholder to clarify intervention aims and results and consult stakeholders on ways to translate intervention findings into practical settingsg
Establish cross-disciplinary collaborations in research to access new tools, methods and expertisee
Promote collaborations between research institutes for wider impactm
Create communities of practice among research institutes and consult stakeholders on bids for fundingh
Utilize Financial Strategies Utilise planning strategies Create a checklist of essentials for quality PE which guides schools planning on provisionsh
Conduct research planning based on available resources including proposing suitable research questions, creating cost-effective solutions in research activities such as training teachers to collect research datah
Support Clinicians Support policy makers, school leaders, teachers Build and communicate robust evidence with stakeholders to encourage uptake of PE and FMS at government levelb
Establish a feedback method for teachers to report fidelity on programme deliverye
Promote common outcome metrics in PA and FMS across all stakehodlersm
Translate evidence base into practical solutions coupled with evaluation techniques and measurable outcomes to create clear FMS guidelines, programme methods, and assessments to be embedded in PE curriculumb
Create practical and appropriate resources and build structures to promote continuity of FMS messages following a life span approach and provide practitioners confidence and rewards to carry out ideasg
Provide Interactive Assistance No change Provide support for practitioners and teachers to co-lead the delivery of projectsg
Create a learning collaborative for stakeholders to share their knowledge and experience regarding FMS and existing FMS resources, as well as to link with researchers to disseminate importance of FMS and best practicef
Train and Educate Stakeholders Train and Educate policy makers, training providers, school leaders, teachers Promote recognition and importance of PE and FMS at national and local level through educating policy holders based on evidence drawn from high quality researchb
Demand and organise better training for teachersb
Strengthen CPD for teachers and include intervention and educational aims in the trainingg
Create appropriate resources and disseminate them in different formats to be shared with stakeholders, including guidelines on creating suitable skill learning environments, fun games for children to practice FMS, social marketing of programme benefits on children’s development and skill specific curriculum programmesg
Plan and implement effective pre-service and in-service teacher training programme to include relevant pedagogies and techniques, learning workshops on knowledge and understanding of FMSf
  1. *The nine higher-level themes of strategies are based on the conceptual categories of the Expert Recommendations for Implementing Change (ERIC) (Waltz et al., 2015). Superscripts stand for which barrier categories the solution is generated in response to. b, Government and Institutional; c, Curricular Conflicts; e, Research Challenges; f, Knowledge and Appreciation; g, Conflicts and Purposes within PE; h, Resources and Funding; m, Intervention Evaluation