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Table 1 Summary of general study Characteristics

From: Clinical and patient-centered implementation outcomes of mHealth interventions for type 2 diabetes in low-and-middle income countries: a systematic review

Study and location Study Design Sample Size Participant Age (Years) Duration of Intervention mHealth intervention delivery
Anzaldo et al. [44]
Mexico
RCT n=301
I1: (Project Dulce)102; I2: (Project Dulce with Technology enhancement) 99
C: 100
18-75 10 months Arm 1: PD TE: Interactive surveys, text messages, short educational videos
Arm 2: PD: combination of care management by a multidisciplinary team led by trained clinicians and nurses, as well as a peer-led group education
Bidirectional
Chai et al. [45]
China
Cohort n=209 Mean age: 51.97
± 12.76
4 Months Upload insulin dosages three or more times for the FPG and postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) on a panel computer
Chao et al. [46]
China
RCT n=121;
I: 62; C: 59
C: Not provided
I: 63.71 (37 -88)
18 months mobile app; Cloud-based IPMF
Bidirectional
Dong et al [47]
China
RCT n=120
I: 60; C: 60
18-60 (23-60) 12 months Web-based app: WeChat platform
Bidirectional
Doocy et al. [48]
Lebanon
Longitudinal Cohort 10 HC; 1020 < 40 a 20 months mHealth app (PCHR),
Fottrell et al. [49]
India
CRCT n=13,728
I1: 4,093; I2: 4,079
C: 5,008;
Mean Age not provided
Adults ≥30
18 months, 1. Voice messages
2-weekly (14 months
2. Monthly PLA group meetings (with a 4-phase PLA cycle)
Gunawardena et al. [50]
Sri Lanka
RCT n=67
I: 35 C: 32
 I: 53 (SD 11), C: 52 (SD 12) 6 months Android based Smart Glucose Manager (SGM) every 3 months
Goodarzi et al. [51]
Iran
RCT n=100
I: 50, C: 50
I:50.98 (SD = 10.32)
C: 56.71 (SD = 9.77)
3 months Text Messages:
4weekly messages
Unidirectional
Haddad et al. [52]
Iraq
Feasibility RCT n=50 Mean: 51.4 (SD 10.3) 6 months Text Messages
1 message per week 5
Bidirectional
Huo et al [53]
China
RCT n=502
I: 251
C:251
Mean: 59.5 (SD 9.4)
I: 59.5 (SD 9.1)
C: 59.5 (SD 9.3)
6 months Text Messages
6 SMSs per week for 6 months;
Weekly unidirectional messages
Bidirectional
Islam et al. [54]
Bangladesh
RCT n=236
I:108; C:108
mean age: SD:
48.1 ± 6 9.7
6 Months Text messages and Voice calls to the study team for any queries in response to the text message (with a 2-day response).
Bidirectional
Kumar et al. [55]
India
RCT n=955
I: 479, C: 476
I: 57.5 (SD 10.8)
C: 57.0 (SD 10.7)
12 months Text Messages
Patient specific frequency (average of 2 times per month for 12 months)
Unidirectional
Li et al. [56]
China
RCT n=101
I: 55 C: 46
48.2 (SD 10.4) 3 months R Plus Health app (Recovery Plus Inc), which connected wirelessly to a chest-worn heart rate band (Recovery Plus Inc) to
Liao et al [57].
China
CRCT n=149
I:69, C: 80
13dancing groups
Mean age: 62 3 months Wrist-worn activity trackers (Lifesense MAMBO2 wristbands)
Activity uploaded to the cloud via a paired smartphone device)
Physical activity reports on the paired smartphone via WeChat without support and peers
Limaye et al. [58]
India
RCT n=265;
I: 132, C: 133
Mean: 36.2 (SD 9.3)
I: 36.8 (7.2)
C: 35.7 (8.1)
12 months Text messages: 3 per wk
Emails: 2 e-mails/ wk between 1000–1300 h;
Website and Facebook
Bidirectional
10% of messages required reply
Olmen et al. [59]
Congo Cambodia Philippines
RCT N=1471
Congo :506; Cambodia:484;
Philippines:481;
Overall: NP
I: 58 (SD 10)
C: 60 (SD 10)
24 months Text Messages
Congo 5 times/wk; Cambodia: 6 times/wk Philippines: 2 times/week
Voice messages
Cambodia ¼ of all messages to specific groups,
Unidirectional
Owolabi et al. [60]
South Africa
RCT n=216
I: 108, C: 108
Overall: 60.64 (SD 11.58) 6 Months Standard of care plus
Tailored Short message services (SMS)
Unidirectional
Owolabi et al. [61]
South Africa
RCT n=216
I: 108; C: 108
Overall: 60.64 (SD 11.58) 6 Months Text Messages
Daily SMS: 2 times a week;
Unidirectional
Patnaik et al. [62]
India
RCT n=66
I: 33 C: 33
42.29(SD 9.5) 24 Months Mobile-based android application
Bi-directional
Peimani et al. [63]
Iran
RCT n=150
I1: 50
I2: 50
I3: 50
I1:49.78(SD 9.76)
I2:53.26 (SD 10.49)
C: 54.56 (9.88)
3 months Text Messages
Voice Calls
Arm 1: individually tailored SMS: each person received 75% of their messages tailored to 2 reported barriers to adherence
Arm 2: non- tailored SMS: random messages sent irrespective of barriers with Voice Calls: Weekly
Pichayapinyo et al. [64]
Thailand
Cohort n=35 54.9 (SD:6.3) 4 Months Interactive Voice Response (IVR) & email content was translated into Thai
IVR calls lasting 5–10 minutes each for 12 weeks
Pfammatter et al. [65]
India
Parallel Cohort n= 1925
I: 982, C: 943
Overall: 32.2 (SD 10.6)
I: 32.83 (SD 9.39) C: 31.66 (SD 11.64)
6 months (Dec 2012-June 2013) Text Messages
(Multilanguage texts)
Daily text messages for the first 6 days followed by 2 SMSs per week
Unidirectional
Rasoul et al. [66]
Iran
RCT n=98
I: 49 C: 49
32.1 (SD 4.9) 5 months Weblogs
Text, video, recorded voice, and nutrition pyramid for diabetic patients
3 days/week, 1:30 hr /session Total: 60 sessions
Rotheram-Borus et al. [67]
South Africa
 Cohort n=22 (Women) 53 (SD 12.8) 3 months
followed by a post-trial FU at 6 months
Text Messaging
Diabetes Buddies program: 12 psycho-educational group sessions
Daily mobile phone probes on health
3 text messaging to a buddy: Frequency: Daily
Bidirectional
Shahid et al. [68]
Pakistan
RCT n=440
I: 220 C: 220
 I: 48.93 SD(8.83), C 49.21 (SD 7.92) 6 months Voice calls
Calls every 15 days for a period of 4 months: Total of 8 calls
Steinman et al [69]
Cambodia
CRCT n=3948
C: 1,737, I: 1,099
NR 12 months Tablet and mobile voice messages delivered via patient’s mobile phones
Sun et al. [70]
China
RCT n=91
I: 44, C: 47
Overall: NP
I: 68.04 (66-72)b
C: 67.9 (66-71) b
6 months Mobile Application
Bidirectional
Wang et al. [71]
China
RCT n=120
I: 60, C:60
Mean age: 45.4 6 months Mobile application
Yasmin et al. [72]
Bangladesh
RCT n=320
I: 160
C: 160
I: 53 [30–85] C: 51 [30–75] 12 months Personalized Voice calls every 10
days, except Fridays and other national holidays
Zhou et al. [73]
China
RCT n=100
I: 50
C: 50
Overall: NP
I: 53.5 (SD 12.4)
C: 55.0 (SD 13.1)
3 months Mobile Application
Welltang mobile App
App for both pts and clinician: 1. Transfers data to servers. Once per week/ Every 2 wks. Feedback: 3-10mins
  1. App Application; Personally controlled health record; PD Project Dulce–only; PD-TE Project Dulce technology enhanced with mobile tools; PPG postprandial plasma glucose; PT Patient; QA Question and answer; SBP systolic Blood Glucose; T2DM type 2 Diabetes Mellitus a Mean age not provided; b Interquartile rage