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Table 4 Summary of Study Effects Size for HbA1c (%)

From: Clinical and patient-centered implementation outcomes of mHealth interventions for type 2 diabetes in low-and-middle income countries: a systematic review

Study mHealth Mode of delivery Control   Intervention  
Study Duration (Months)   Pre-intervention Post-intervention    Pre-intervention   Post-intervention Effect Size
n Mean SD Mean SD p-value n Mean SD Mean SD % Pre-Post Intervention Difference Cohen’s d Hedge’s g
Anzaldo et al. [49]1 Mobile App 10 100 10.90 2.02 10.60 3.29 0.01 201 11.29 2.28 8.46 3.31 2.83 0.64 0.64
Chao et al. [46] Mobile App 18 48 8.95 2.34 7.82 1.87 0.03 49 8.44 2.28 6.92 1.27 1.52 0.58 0.58
Dong et al. [47] MPTMs, Int 12 59 9.23 2.13 8.35 1.75 0.05 60 9.55 2.38 6.63 1.17 2.92 1.16 1.16
Goodarzi et al. [51] MPTMs, Uni 3 38 7.91 1.24 7.02 1.02 0.24 43 7.83 1.12 7.48 1.26 0.36 0.40 0.40
Huo et al. [53] MPTMs Int 6 251 6.90 1.40 6.70 1.30 0.00 251 7.10 1.40 7.20 1.50 0.10 0.36 0.36
Li at al [56]. Mobile App 3 41 7.50 1.80 6.80 1.33 0.43 44 7.20 1.8 6.65 1.08 0.55 0.12 0.12
Peimani et al. [63]1 MPTMs, Uni 3 50 7.41 1.40 7.16 1.31 0.19 50 7.52 1.49 7.55 1.44 0.90 0.28 0.28
Pichayapinyo et al. [64] MPCs 3 35 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 0.502 NR
Shahid et al. [68] MPCs 6 220 9.85 1.37 9.36 1.15 0.001 220 10.09 1.71 8.63 1.29 1.46 0.15 0.15
Sun et al. [70] Mobile APPs WPMDs 6 44 7.84 0.73 6.84 0.76 0.46 47 7.88 0.64 7.22 0.87 0.66 0.47 0.46
Wang et al. [71] Mobile App 6 60 8.68 2.26 7.92 2.15 0.886 60 8.62 2.33 7.12 2.01 1.50 0.38 0.38
Zhou et al. [73] Mobile App 3 50 9.86 2.38 7.91 1.58 0.01 50 9.76 2.51 8.97 2.08 0.79 0.57 0.57
  1. 1Combined means and SD Study had two intervention arms; 2 Reported effect size, interquartile range IQR; 3NR: Not reported; WPMDs: Wearable or portable monitoring devices; MCPs: Mobile phone calls (MPCs), MPTMs : mobile phone text messages; Uni: Unidirectional; Int: Interactive