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Table 4 Associations of infant food responsiveness and enjoyment of food with income-poverty ratio, maternal reward-related eating, pregnancy ultra-processed food intake and weight indicators, and feeding mode

From: Prospective relations of maternal reward-related eating, pregnancy ultra-processed food intake and weight indicators, and feeding mode with infant appetitive traits

  Infant Food Responsiveness Infant Enjoyment of Food
Maternal Variables B(SE) p ΔR2 B(SE) p ΔR2
Step 1    .00    .01
 Income-poverty Ratio 0.02(0.07) .727   -0.12(0.07) .094  
Step 2    .01    .01
 Preoccupation with Food 0.09(0.07) .237   -0.06(0.07) .374  
 Reinforcing Value of Food 0.02(0.07) .833   -0.06(0.07) .416  
Step 3    .02    .01
 %Energy Intake from UPF 0.06(0.07) .398   -0.03(0.07) .692  
 Early Pregnancy BMI 0.13(0.08) .106   0.07(0.08) .370  
 Excessive GWGa -0.08(0.15) .602   0.14(0.15) .353  
Step 4    .03    .02
 Exclusive Breastfeeding Duration -0.18(0.07) .014   0.14(0.07) .055  
  1. Linear regressions were conducted with independent variables entered as follows: Step 1 included household income-poverty ratio, Step 2 added maternal food preoccupation and responsiveness and maternal reinforcing value of food, Step 3 added maternal UPF intake (% of energy intake) during pregnancy, early pregnancy BMI, and GWG, and Step 4 added exclusive breastfeeding duration. aDummy coded (0 = Inadequate or adequate, 1 = Excessive). UPF Ultra-Processed Food, BMI Body Mass Index, GWG Gestational Weight Gain