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Table 6 Association between demographic factors and food insecurity—univariate logistic regression

From: The new normal for food insecurity? A repeated cross-sectional survey over 1 year during the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia

   Survey 1: lockdown n = 1067 Survey 2: restrictions eased n = 1133 Survey 3: 1-year post-lockdown n = 1117
Parameter Level OR SE p 95%CI OR SE p 95%CI OR SE p 95%CI
Gender Male 1.01 0.167 0.943 [0,73, 1.40] 1.28 0.225 0.165 [0.90, 1.80] 1.22 0.206 0.231 [0.88, 1.70]
Age Increase in age per 10 years 0.885 0.043 0.012 [0.81, 0.97] 0.752 0.422 < 0.001 [0.67, 0.84] 0.713 0.039 < 0.001 [0.64, 0.79]
Indigenous Yes 3.68 1.586 0.001 [1.74, 8.64] 6.81 2.66 < 0.001 [3.16, 14.7] 2.58 0.983 0.013 [1.22, 5.44]
Disability Yes 2.27 0.356 < 0.001 [1.67, 3.09] 3.86 0.80 < 0.001 [2.57, 5.80] 2.38 0.392 < 0.001 [1.72, 3.29]
Rurality Rural 1.63 0.243 0.001 [1.22, 2.19] 1.82 0.311 < 0.001 [1.30, 2.54] 1.12 0.194 0.527 [0.79, 1.57]
Education University Ref     Ref     Ref    
  Diploma/TAFE 2.25 0.385 < 0.001 [1.61, 3.15] 1.36 0.240 0.078 [0.97, 1.93] 1.65 0.320 0.010 [1.13, 2.42]
  High School 2.56 0.494 < 0.001 [1.76, 3.74] 1.57 0.388 0.069 [0.97, 2.55] 1.96 0.449 0.003 [1.25, 3.07]
Household Couple, no dependents Ref     Ref     Ref    
  Couple with dependents 1.35 0.232 0.083 [0.96, 1.89] 1.41 0.315 0.121 [0.91, 2.19] 3.06 0.644 < 0.001 [2.02, 4.62]
  Single parent household 3.22 0.880 < 0.001 [1.89, 5.50] 5.32 1.67 < 0.001 [2.87, 9.85] 3.67 1.734 0.006 [1.46, 9.27]
  One person household 1.40 0.274 0.086 [0.95, 2.05] 1.55 0.341 0.048 [1.00, 2.38] 2.51 0.573 < 0.001 [1.61. 3.93]
Residency Born in Australia Ref     Ref     Ref    
  Born overseas, citizen 0.700 0.145 0.080 [0.47, 1.04] 0.846 0.185 0.443 [0.55, 1.30] 0.708 0.157 0.120 [0.46, 1.09]
  Permanent resident 1.37 0.537 0.421 [0.64, 2.96] 1.25 0.585 0.663 [0.50, 3.13] 0.632 0.343 0.397 [0.22, 1.83]
  Temporary resident 4,.11 2.05 0.005 [1.55, 10.9] 14.4 9.68 < 0.001 [3.84, 53.8] 4.42 3.154 0.037 [1.09, 17.9]
  1. OR Odds Ratio, SE Standard Error, p p-value derived from univariate logistic regression, 95%CI 95% Confidence Interval