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Table 2 Cross-sectional associations of Grade 4 fall MVPA and course marks, moderated by student and school characteristics a

From: Physical activity and academic achievement: an analysis of potential student- and school-level moderators

  Math Reading Writing Spelling
  Association (SE) p Association (SE) p Association (SE) p Association (SE) p
Student Characteristics
 MVPA -0.053 (0.019) 0.005 -0.044 (0.016) 0.008 -0.060 (0.016) 0.000 -0.067 (0.022) 0.002
 Gender -0.524 (0.242) 0.031 0.676 (0.211) 0.001 1.143 (0.208) 0.000 0.560 (0.272) 0.040
 MVPA * gender -0.003 (0.027) 0.920 -0.014 (0.024) 0.545 0.009 (0.024) 0.688 -0.003 (0.032) 0.937
 MVPA -0.024 (0.021) 0.264 -0.039 (0.019) 0.040 -0.051 (0.018) 0.005 -0.023 (0.024) 0.343
 Student FRL -0.673 (0.296) 0.023 -0.480 (0.260) 0.064 -0.791 (0.254) 0.002 -0.852 (0.334) 0.011
 MVPA * FRL -0.055 (0.027) 0.047 -0.019 (0.024) 0.415 -0.009 (0.023) 0.691 -0.081 (0.030) 0.007
 MVPA 0.008 (0.029) 0.797 -0.013 (0.025) 0.599 -0.046 (0.024) 0.059 -0.002 (0.032) 0.950
 Hispanic -0.721 (0.404) 0.074 -0.843 (0.353) 0.017 -0.735 (0.345) 0.033 -0.432 (0.453) 0.340
 Black -0.837 (0.376) 0.026 -0.589 (0.324) 0.070 -0.635 (0.318) 0.046 0.261 (0.423) 0.536
 Asian 2.511 (0.437) 0.000 1.032 (0.380) 0.007 1.445 (0.373) 0.000 2.237 (0.488) 0.000
 Mixed 1.043 (0.610) 0.087 0.878 (0.527) 0.096 1.059 (0.519) 0.041 2.015 (0.689) 0.004
 MVPA * Hispanic -0.105 (0.038) 0.005 -0.042 (0.032) 0.190 -0.023 (0.031) 0.461 -0.159 (0.041) 0.000
 MVPA * Black -0.101 (0.039) 0.009 -0.061 (0.032) 0.059 -0.013 (0.031) 0.678 -0.037 (0.041) 0.365
 MVPA * Asian -0.028 (0.048) 0.566 -0.049 (0.043) 0.252 0.012 (0.041) 0.778 -0.043 (0.054) 0.433
 MVPA * Mixed 0.078 (0.066) 0.237 -0.014 (0.057) 0.800 -0.002 (0.056) 0.968 0.015 (0.074) 0.844
School Characteristics
 MVPA -0.054 (0.016) 0.001 -0.049 (0.013) 0.000 -0.056 (0.013) 0.000 -0.068 (0.017) 0.000
 School % FRL -0.009 (0.089) 0.916 -0.038 (0.077) 0.620 -0.099 (0.081) 0.221 -0.207 (0.086) 0.016
 MVPA * % FRL -0.001 (0.001) 0.025 -0.001 (< 0.001) 0.155 0.000 (< 0.001) 0.597 -0.002 (0.001) 0.010
 MVPA -0.037 (0.023) (0.105) -0.034 (0.019) 0.075 -0.027 (0.019) 0.148 -0.031 (0.025) 0.205
 SPAPA Recess 1.119 (1.220) 0.359 0.772 (1.070) 0.471 -0.297 (1.116) 0.790 1.099 (1.158) 0.343
 MVPA*SPAPA Recess -0.03 (0.02) 0.272 -0.029 (0.025) 0.239 -0.053 (0.024) 0.029 -0.068 (0.032) 0.034
 MVPA -0.018 (0.026) 0.498 -0.002 (0.022) 0.947 -0.018 (0.022) 0.409 0.019 (0.029) 0.502
 SPAPA PE 0.911 (1.067) 0.394 0.866 (0.925) 0.349 0.556 (0.975) 0.573 -0.766 (1.047) 0.464
 MVPA*SPAPA PE -0.054 (0.031) 0.079 -0.075 (0.026) 0.006 -0.071 (0.026) 0.033 -0.128 (0.033) 0.000
  1. a Models adjusted for student sex, race/ethnicity, FRL status, English Language Learner status, student with disabilities status, Grade 3 absences, Grade 3 tardies, special education course enrollment, school percentage female, school percentage black, school percentage Hispanic, school percentage FRL, school cohort (intervention or control), departmentalization, and prior achievement for the specific academic outcome (e.g., when assessing math grade as outcome, used Grade 3 average math grade). The 95% Confidence Interval for the indirect effect was found using the Monte Carlo method. In bold are the indirect effects found to be statistically significant using a Bonferroni corrected alpha of 0.00038