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Table 2 Study Characteristics for Included Studies separated by Accelerometer Type (n=55)

From: Physical activity and sedentary time among preschoolers in centre-based childcare: a systematic review

Authors (Year) Country Study Design Sample Size & Age (yrs) Average Wear-Time Monitoring Time During Childcare Epoch Length Cut-Points Mean Physical Activity (mins/hr) Mean Sedentary Time (mins/hr) Study Quality
Carson et al. (2015a) [33] Canada Cohort N= 50
Age= 3-5
5.6 hr/day
(SE= 0.2)
5 days of monitoring; ≥1 hr of wear-time on ≥3 days to be included 15-s Adolph LPA= 19.50
MVPA= 5.30
TPA= 24.80b
35.20 9c
Chow et al. (2016) [35] Canada Longitudinal N= 69
Age= 3-5
11.4 hr/day 7 days of monitoring; ≥8 hr of wear-time on ≥1 day to be included 15-s Puyau LPA = 21.30b
MVPA = 4.40b
TPA = 26.00b
33.48b 7c
Copeland et al. (2016) [29] U.S. Cross-sectional N= 388
Age= 4.3
8.4 hr (SD=1.2) 1 day of monitoring 15-s Pfeiffer LPA = 21.40a
MVPA= 2.40a
TPA = 23.80ba
36.10 10c
Goldfield et al. (2016) [52] Canada Cluster RCT N= 83
Age= 3-5
6.7 hr/day 5 days of monitoring; ≥4hr of wear-time on ≥2 days to be included 15-s Adolph LPA= 18.51a
MVPA= 4.90a
TPA= 23.43a
36.85 27d
Tucker et al. (2015) [2] Canada Cross-sectional N= 218
Age= 2.5-5
6.8 hr/day 5 days of monitoring; ≥5 hr of wear-time on ≥3 days to be included 15-s Pfeiffer Not reported 41.62 (SD=3.78) 10c
Van Cauwenberghe et al. (2012b) [38] New Zealand Validation N= 49
Age= 3-4
4.9 hr/day 1 day of monitoring; ≥3 hrs of concurrent data on both devices to be included 15-s Evenson Not reported 30.61b 9c
Vanderloo & Tucker (2015) [32] Canada Cross-sectional N= 101
Age= 2.5-5
5.9 hr/day 5 days of monitoring; ≥5 hr of wear-time of ≥1 day to be included 15-s Pfeiffer LPA=16.42 MVPA= 1.37
TPA= 17.70
42.38 10c
Vanderloo et al. (2015) [11] Canada Cross-sectional N= 71
Age= 2.5-5
6.8 hr/day 5 days of monitoring; ≥5 hr of wear-time on ≥3 days to be included 15-s Pfeiffer LPA = 16.78b
MVPA= 1.58
TPA= 18.36
Not reported 10c
Vanderloo et al. (2014) [19] Canada Cross-sectional N= 31
Age= 4.10
7.5 hr/day 1 day of monitoring; ≥4hr of wear-time to be included 15-s Pfeiffer LPA = 15.88
MVPA= 1.54
TPA= 17.42
40.64 10c
Webster et al. (2015) [26] U.S. Cross-sectional N = 118
Age= 2.5-5
4.3 hr/day 4 days of monitoring 15-s Pfeiffer MVPA = 1.77b Not reported 8c
ActiGraph
Addy et al. (2014) [53] U.S. Cross-sectional In-School Sample: N=199
Age 4.2
8.2 hr/day (SD=1.4) 7 days of monitoring; ≥4.9hr of wear-time on ≥4 days to be included 15-s Pate LPA = 5.70
MVPA= 7.50
TPA= 13.20
46.80b 9c
Alhassan et al. (2007) [27] U.S. RCT N= 32
Age= 3-5
13.0 hr/day 4 full days of monitoring; School day: 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. 30-s epoch, converted to 60-s Sirard LPA = 2.94a
MVPA = 1.29a
TPA = 4.23a
55.77b 25d
Alhassan et al. (2012a) [54] U.S. Cluster RCT (pilot study) N= 71
Age= 2.9-5
9.2 hr/day 7 days of monitoring; ≥9hr of wear-time on ≥4 days to be included 15-s Sirard LPA = 9.90a
MVPA = 4.32a
TPA = 14.22a
45.75a 25d
Alhassan et al. (2012b) [55] U.S. Cluster RCT N= 291
Age= 2.9-5
Not reported 5 days of monitoring; School day: 7:00am-4:30pm 15-s Sirard LPA= 11.16b
MVPA = 3.84b
TPA = 15.00b
44.52b 25d
Alhassan et al. (2013) [56] U.S. Cluster RCT (pilot study) N= 67
Age= 2.9-5
12.2 hr/day ≥9 hr of wear-time on ≥4 days to be included 15-s Sirard LPA = 9.99a
MVPA = 4.08a
TPA = 14.07a
46.14a 28d
Alhassan et al. (2016) [57] U.S. Cluster RCT N= 291
Age= 4.1
6.9 hr/day ≥7.0 hrs of wear-time ≥3 days to be included 15-s epochs, converted to 60-s Sirard LPA= 11.55a
MVPA = 3.96a
TPA= 15.51a
44.76a 23d
Annesi et al. (2013a) [58] U.S. Cluster RCT N= 275
Age= 3.5-5.6
4.8 hr/day School day: 9:15 a.m. to 2:00 p.m. 15-s Pate LPA= 11.44a
MVPA= 18.64a
TPA= 30.08a
29.92a 23d
Annesi et al. (2013b) [59] U.S. Cluster RCT N= 885
Age= 3-5
4.8 hr/day School day: 9:15 a.m. to 2:00 p.m. 15-s Pate LPA = 10.40a
MVPA= 13.92a
TPA = 24.33a
35.67a 24d
Annesi et al. (2013c) [34] U.S. RCT N= 338
Age= 3-5
4.8 hr/day School day: 9:15 a.m. to 2:00 p.m. 15-s PA : Pate ST : Sirard LPA=11.59a MVPA= 19.16a
TPA= 30.75a
29.26a 24d
Barbosa et al. (2016) [28] Brazil Cross-sectional N= 370
Age= 5.2
Not reported 5 days of monitoring; ≥6 hr of wear-time to be included 1-s Sirard LPA= 4.38
MVPA= 1.40
TPA= 5.85
54.15 9c
Byun et al. (2013) [60] U.S. Cross-sectional N= 331
Age= 4
5.9 hr/day 5 days of monitoring; ≥4 hr of wear-time on ≥3 days to be included 15-s Pate Not reported 45.75 8c
Carson et al. (2015b) [61] Australia Cohort N= 177
Age= 3-5
4.4 hr/day 7 days of monitoring; ≥6 hr of wear-time on ≥3 days to be included 15-s Evenson Not reported 28.68b 9c
Cerin et al. (2016) [62] Australia Observational N= 84
Age= 3-5
11.7 hr/day 7 days of monitoring; ≥8 hours of wear-time on ≥1 day to be included 15-s, converted to 30-s Pate LPA= 22.40b
MVPA= 4.20b TPA= 29.40b
30.60b 10c
Dawson-Hahn et al. (2015) [63] U.S. Cross-sectional N= 81
Age= 3-5
11.7 hr/day ≥3 hr of wear-time on ≥5 days to be included 15-s Pate TPA= 24.90 35.10 7c
De Craemer et al. (2014) [36] Belgium Cluster RCT N= 472
Age= 4-6
11.8 hr/day (SD=1.1) 6 days of monitoring; ≥6 hr of wear-time on ≥2 weekdays and ≥1 weekend day 15-s Evenson LPA= 29.04a
MVPA= 4.08a
TPA= 33.48a
26.52a 27d
De Craemer et al. (2016) [64] Belgium Cluster RCT N= 859
Age= 3-4
11.8 hr/day (SD=1.1) 6 days of monitoring; ≥6 hr of wear-time on ≥2 weekdays and ≥1 weekend day 15-s Evenson TPA= 32.82a 27.18a 26d
Erinosho et al. (2016) [65] U.S. Cross-sectional N= 544
Age= 3-5
6.8 hr/day
(SD=1.3)
4 days of monitoring; ≥4 hr of wear-time on 4 days to be included 5-s converted to 15-s ST: Evenson, PA: Pate LPA = 23.4b
MVPA= 5.5
TPA = 28.90b
31.1 9c
Gagné & Harnois (2013) [66] Canada Cross-sectional N= 242
Age= 3-5
8.0 hr/day 4 days of monitoring; ≥4 hr of wear-time on ≥2 days to be included 15-s Sirard LPA = 5.05b
MVPA = 1.58b
TPA = 6.63b
53.37b 10c
Henderson et al. (2015) [30] U.S. Cross-sectional N= 389
Age= 3-5
3.33 hr (SD=0.7) 1 day of monitoring 5-s Evenson LPA= 29.96b MVPA= 9.00
TPA = 30.96b
29.82b 9c
Hinkley et al. (2016) [67] Australia Observational N= 731
Age= 3-5
Not reported 8 days of monitoring; ≥50% of preschool time on ≥2 days to be included 15s Troiano TPA= 29.61a 30.39a 10c
Jones et al. (2011) [68] Australia RCT N= 150
Age= 4
Not reported 2 days of monitoring 15-s Sirard LPA= 21.91a MVPA= 10.10a
TPA= 32.01a
27.99a 25d
Loprinzi & Trost (2010) [69] Australia Cross-sectional N= 156
Age= 2-5
5.5 hr/day
(SD= 0.5)
5 days of monitoring; ≥4 hr of wear-time on ≥2 days to be included 15-s Sirard MVPA= 9.10 Not reported 8c
Oleson et al. (2013) [70] Denmark Cluster RCT N= 426
Age= 5.8
7.2 hr/day 5 days of monitoring; ≥3 hr of wear-time on ≥3 days to be included; 15-s Evenson MVPA= 8.16b Not reported 25d
O'Dwyer et al. (2014) [71] UK Cross-sectional N= 188
Age= 4-5
6 hr/day 7 days of monitoring; ≥10.3 hr of wear-time during a weekday on ≥2 weekdays
School day: 9:00 a.m. to 3 p.m.
5-s Sirard MVPA= 4.06ba Not reported 10c
O'Neill et al. (2016) [72] U.S. Cross-sectional N=341
Age= 3-5
5.5 hr/day (SD=1.5) 5 days of monitoring; ≥6 hr of wear-time on ≥2 days to be included 15-s ST: España-Romero, PA: Pate LPA= 7.00b
MVPA= 7.10
TPA= 14.10
45.90b 7c
Pagels et al. (2011) [73] U.S. and Sweden Cross-sectional N= 55
Age= 3.4-5.7
7.2 hr/day (SD=1.2) 5 days of monitoring 15-s Sirard MVPA= 2.36a
TPA= 6.65a
54.92a 9c
Pate et al. (2016) [74] U.S. RCT N= 379
Age= 3-5
5.3 hr/day 5 days of monitoring; ≥3 days to be included 15-s Pate LPA= 7.00a
MVPA= 7.45 a TPA= 13.90a
46.10a 26d
Pate et al. (2014) [75] U.S. Cross-sectional N= 301
Age= 4
5.8 hr/day 5 days of monitoring; ≥4 hr of wear-time on ≥3 days to be included 15-s ST: España-Romero
PA: Pate
LPA= 7.10a
MVPA= 7.10a
TPA= 14.20a
45.80b 10c
Pate et al. (2004) [1] U.S. Cross-sectional N= 247
Age= 3-5
4.4 hr/day
(SD= 1.3)
1 to 11 days of monitoring; ≥1 hr of wear-time on ≥3 days to be included 15-s Sirard LPA= 10.50a
MVPA= 7.40a
TPA= 17.90ba
42.10 10c
Ross et al. (2013) [76] U.S. Cross-sectional N= 339
Age= 3-5
Not Reported 5 days of monitoring 15-s Pate LPA = 7.55a
MVPA= 7.75a
TPA= 15.30a
44.70b 26d
Saunders et al. (2017) [77] U.S. Cross-sectional N= 567
Age= 3-5
Not Reported 5 days of monitoring; ≥50 % of time in childcare on ≥3 days to be included 15-s Pate MVPA=6.80 Not reported 10c
Schlechter et al. (2017) [78] U.S. Cross-sectional N= 73
Age= 3-6
6.4 hr/day 15 days of monitoring 15-s Van Cauwenberghe TPA = 18.30b 41.70b 10c
Schuna et al. (2016) [41] U.S. Cross-sectional N= 62
Age= 3-5
5.2 hr/day 5 days of monitoring at 2 separate time points (fall and winter); ≥3 hr of wear-time on ≥2 days to be included 5-s Pate LPA= 16.20a
MVPA= 8.45a
MPA= 5.25a
35.35b 8c
Shen et al. (2013) [79] U.S. Cross-sectional N= 46
Age= 3-5
6.8 hr/day 6 days of monitoring; Data collected from: 7am to 8pm 15-s Sirard LPA= 10.23a
MVPA= 3.58a
46.20b 9c
Soini et al. (2014) [40] Finland/Australia Cross-sectional N= 121
Age= 3
10.2 hr/day 5 days of monitoring; ≥7.5 hr of wear-time on ≥1 childcare day and ≥1 homecare day 5-s Pate LPA= 18.00ba
MVPA= 8.40ba
TPA= 26.40ba
33.60b 10c
Stephens et al. (2014) [80] U.S. Cross-sectional N= 1,352
Age= 2-5
Not reported 1 or 2 days of monitoring 15-s, (some children w/ 60-s due to malfunction) Pate MVPA= 6.20a Not reported 9c
Sugiyama et al. (2012) [81] Australia Cross-sectional N= 89
Age= 3-5
6.6 hr/day 3 days of monitoring 15-s Sirard LPA = 7.56b
MVPA= 3.67b
TPA = 11.23b
48.77b 9c
Tandon et al. (2015) [82] U.S. Cross-sectional N= 98
Age= 3-5
Not reported 4 days of monitoring; School day: 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. 15-s Pate LPA = 7.80b MVPA= 8.40b
TPA = 16.20b
43.80b 10c
Vale et al. (2011) [83] Portugal Cross-sectional N= 59
Age= 2-5
Not reported 4 days of monitoring 5-s Sirard LPA = 6.09b
MVPA = 4.52b
TPA = 10.61b
49.39b 7c
Vale et al. (2009) [84] Portugal Cross-sectional N= 59
Age= 2-5
Not reported 5 days of monitoring;
≥6 hours of wear-time to be included
5-s & 60-s Sirard 5-s epoch = MVPA = 26.46 (SD= 9.64)
60-s epoch = MVPA = 10.05 (SD= 8.43)
Not reported 7c
Van Cauwenberghe et al. (2012a) [85] Belgium Cross-sectional (pilot study) N= 107
Age= 4-6
7.7 hr/day 5 days of monitoring 15-s Van Cauwenberghe LPA = 4.26b
MVPA = 5.25b
TPA = 9.51b
50.49b 7c
Van Cauwenberghe et al. (2013) [86] Belgium Cross-sectional N= 200
Age= 4-6.2
12.2 hr/day 4 days of monitoring; ≥8 hours of wear-time on ≥2 days to be included 15-s Van Cauwenberghe LPA= 4.20b
MVPA= 4.31b
TPA= 8.51b
51.49b 9c
Williams et al. (2008) [87] U.S. Cross-sectional N= 198
Age= 3-4
12.7 hr/day 5 days of monitoring 15-s Pate LPA= 19.56b
MVPA= 7.56b
TPA= 27.12b
32.88b 8c
Actiheart
Hesketh et al. (2015) [31] UK Cross-sectional N= 202
Age= 3-4
10.8 hr/day 7 days of monitoring;≥10 hr of wear-time on ≥2 days to be included 15-s Pate LPA= 25.49
MVPA= 22.66
TPA= 47.15
12.38 10c
ActivPAL
Ellis et al. (2016) [37] Australia Cross-sectional N= 233
Age= 3.0-5.9
5.1 hr/day 5 days of monitoring; ≥3 hr of wear-time on ≥1 day to be included 15-s Not applicable TPA = 10.98 49.02 10c
Van Cauwenberghe et al. (2012b) [38] New Zealand Validation N= 49
Age= 3-4
4.9 hr/day 1 day of monitoring; ≥3 hrs of concurrent data on both devices to be included 15-s Not applicable Not reported 30.24 9c
  1. Notes: LPA light physical activity, MVPA moderate-to vigorous-intensity physical activity, TPA total physical activity, SD standard deviation, RCT randomized control trial.
  2. a = averaged scores generated by researchers (e.g., scores between control and intervention group, scores between location, etc.).
  3. b = calculated activity intensity based on data presented in original article (i.e., converted mins/day to mins/hr at each activity intensity based on wear-time during childcare; converted % of time to mins/hr at each activity intensity; summed LPA and MVPA to generate TPA score).
  4. c = scored using the modified Downs & Black Checklist (out of 10 items)
  5. d = scored using the complete Downs & Black Checklist (out of 27 items)