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Table 2 Adverse events by grade of severity described for those in the exercise and usual care groups

From: Exercise and colorectal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of exercise safety, feasibility and effectiveness

AE grade Exercise
(160 adverse events, 670 participants)
Total number of adverse eventsa - exercise-related adverse events
Usual care
(98 adverse events, 623 participants)
Total number of adverse eventsa - exercise-related adverse events
1 Grade 1 adverse events: 127–1 Grade 1 adverse events: 73–0
Low-severity musculoskeletal symptoms (pain, stiffness, soreness, tendonitis, cramp or arthritis) (65–1)
Fatigue (7–0)
Flu-like symptoms (6–0)
Palpitations (5–0)
Bruising (5–0)
Dizziness/vertigo (5–0)
Headache (4–0)
Diarrhea (3–0)
Dry mouth (3–0)
Toothache (3–0)
Otitis media (3–0)
Fall (3–0)
Sinus pain (3–0)
External ear inflammation (2–0)
Shortness of breath (2–0)
Neuralgia (2–0)
Mouth pain (1–0)
Non-cardiac chest pain (1–0)
Upper-respiratory infection (1–0)
Constipation (1–0)
Vomiting (1–0)
Lymph node pain (1–0)
Low-severity musculoskeletal symptoms (pain, stiffness, soreness, tendonitis, cramp or arthritis) (41–0)
Fatigue (10–0)
Shortness of breath (2–0)
Diarrhea (2–0)
Flu-like symptoms (2–0)
Bruising (2–0)
Dizziness (2–0)
Dry eye (1–0)
Dry mouth (1–0)
Palpitations (1–0)
Edema in limbs (1–0)
Non-cardiac chest pain (1–0)
Fall (1–0)
Arthritis (1–0)
Headache (1–0)
Neuralgia (1–0)
Sinus pain (1–0)
Vomiting (1–0)
Chills (1–0)
2 Grade 2 adverse events: 14–6 Grade 2 adverse events: 4–0
Musculoskeletal pain (6–6)
Chest pain (2–0)
Wound infection at the site of surgery (1–0)
Blurred vision (1–0)
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (1–0)
Edema limbs (1–0)
Hyperglycaemia (1–0)
Peripheral neuropathy (preventing exercise) (1–0)
Postoperative ileus (1–0)
Hyperthyroidism (1–0)
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (1–0)
Chest pain (1–0)
3b Grade 3 adverse events: 12–0 Grade 3 adverse events: 14–0
Unspecified medical problem leading to withdrawal (5–0)
Postoperative ventral hernias (2–0)
Fatigue and malaise (led to withdrawal) (2–0)
Stroke (2–0)
Acute illness (1–0)
Unspecified medical reasons (6–0)
Mental reasons/depression (3–0)
Postoperative ventral hernias (1–0)
Microhaematuria (1–0)
Acute illness (1–0)
Progressive disease with cough (1–0)
Psychological reasons leading to withdrawal (1–0)
4 Grade 4 adverse events: 5–0 Grade 4 adverse events: 5–0
Cancer recurrence (1–0)
Emergency surgery required (1–0)
Pneumonia (1–0)
Metastasis (1–0)
Diagnosed with lung cancer (1–0)
Metastasis (3–0)
Cancer recurrence (2–0)
5 Grade 5 adverse events: 2–0 Grade 5 adverse events: 2–0
Death (2–0; n = 1 due to perforated cholecystitis; n = 1 unspecified) Death (2–0; n = 1 was due to sepsis; n = 1 unspecified)
  1. AE adverse events
  2. Adverse events were classified using the Common Terminology Criteria as: grade 1- asymptomatic or mild symptoms; grade 2- moderate, minimal, local or non-invasive intervention indicated and limiting age-appropriate instrumental activities of daily living; grade 3- severe or medically significant but not immediately life-threatening; grade 4- life-threatening consequences and urgent intervention indicated, or; grade 5- death
  3. a Includes all adverse events (both exercise- and non-exercise related)
  4. bAdverse events in which the severity was not reported were considered Grade 3 or higher if the event led to study withdrawal