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Table 1 Sample and design characteristics of eligible articles

From: Seasons, weather, and device-measured movement behaviors: a scoping review from 2006 to 2020

Reference Country N Female (%) Age Group Age (M ± SD [years]) Race Monitoring Period Design Environmental Measure
Aadland et al. (2018) Norway 465 51.6 Youth 10.9 ± 0.3 NA 7 days Longitudinal Season
Aebi et al. (2020) Switzerland 1314 48.7 Adults 67.9 ± 7.9 NA 8 days Cross-sectional Season
Aibar Solana et al. (2015) France, Spain 646 58.8 Youth 14.3 ± 0.7 NA 7 days Longitudinal Weather
Akande et al. (2019) Canada 272 43.8 Adults 34.9 ± 12.6 Inuit: 74.6%; Other: 25.4% 7 days Longitudinal  
Albrecht et al. (2020) Germany 577 52.0 Older adults Range: 65–75 NA 7 days Longitudinal  
Al-Mohannadi et al. (2016) Qatar 2088 33.4 Adults 41.6 ± 10.7 Eastern Mediterranean: 52.3%; South East Asian: 30.7%; Western Pacific:8.0%; African: 3.4%; North/South American: 3.1%; European: 2.5% 24 months Longitudinal  
Arnardottir et al. (2017) Iceland 138 60.1 Older adults 80.3 ± 4.9 NA 7 days Cross-sectional Season
Aspvik et al. (2018) Norway 1219 51.2 Older adults 72.4 ± 2.1 NA 7 days Longitudinal Weather
Atkin et al. (2016) United Kingdom, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland 704 52.6 Youth 7.6 ± 0.3 Caucasian: 92.9%; Other: 7.1% 7 days Longitudinal Weather
Badland et al. (2011) Australia 1754 59.3 Adults 39.9 ± 11.8 NA 7 days Longitudinal Season, Weather
Balish et al. (2017) Canada 190 45.3 Adults NA NA 7 days Longitudinal Season, Weather
Barkley and Herrmann (2017) United States 16 NA Older adults NA NA 7 days Longitudinal Season
Beighle et al. (2013) United States 321 52.0 Youth 9.1 ± 1.5 NA 7 days Longitudinal Season
Bejarano et al. (2019) United States 26 42.3 Youth 16 ± 1.6 Caucasian: 69.2%; Native American: 15.4%; Hispanic: 11.5%; Asian: 3.8% 20 days Longitudinal Weather
Boutou et al. (2019) United Kingdom, Belgium, Greece, Netherlands 157 75.8 Adults 67.2 ± 7.8 NA 7 days Longitudinal Weather
Brandon et al. (2009) Canada 48 75.0 Older adults 77.4 ± 4.7 NA 7 days Longitudinal Weather
Bremer et al. (2019) Canada 110 51.8 Youth 10.2 ± 1.7 NA 7 days Longitudinal Weather
Bringolf-Isler et al. (2009) Switzerland 164 52.0 Youth Range: 6–14 NA 7 days Longitudinal Season
Brychta et al. (2016) Iceland 70 64.3 Older adults 79.5 ± 4.8 NA 7 days Cross-sectional Weather
Buchowski et al. (2009) United States 57 100 Adults 36.5 ± 9.2 NA 7 days Longitudinal Season
Button et al. (2020) Canada 90 61.1 Youth 10.6 ± 1.4 White: 56.7%; Indigenous & Visible Minority: 43.3% 8 days Longitudinal Weather
Carr et al. (2016) United States 132 100 Adults 41.6 ± 10.1 Hispanic/Latino: 100% 12 months Longitudinal Season
Cepeda et al. (2018) Netherlands 1166 44.4 Adults & older adults Middle aged: Median = 59.1 [IQR = 56.1–62.4]; Young elderly: 71.3 [67.3–72.8]; Old elderly: 78.9 [77.0–81.4] NA 7 days Cross-sectional Season
Chang et al. (2020) China 53 49.1 Youth 4.9 ± 0.2 NA 7 days Longitudinal Season
Clemes et al. (2011) United Kingdom 96 53.2 Adults 40.7 ± 12.5 NA 4 weeks Longitudinal Season
Collings et al. (2020) United Kingdom 342 48.8 Youth 3.4 ± 0.8 White: 40.9%; South Asian: 59.1% 6 days Longitudinal Season
Colom et al. (2019) Spain 218 51.0 Adults Range: 55–75 NA 9 days Cross-sectional Weather
Cooper et al. (2010) United Kingdom 1010 53.3 Youth 11.0 ± 0.4 NA 4 days Cross-sectional Season
Cradock et al. (2009) United States 152 41.0 Youth 13.7 ± 0.7 White: 57.0%; Black/African-American: 10.0%; Hispanic: 13.0%; Asian: 12.0%; Other Race/Ethnicity: 9.0% 4 days Cross-sectional Weather
Crowley et al. (2016) United States 510 55.0 Adults 43.5 ± 9.2 NA 12 months Longitudinal Season
Cullen et al. (2017) United States 342 100 Youth Range: 8–10 African-American: 100% 7 days Cross-sectional Weather
Davis et al. (2011) United Kingdom 230 49.1 Older adults 78.1 ± 5.8   7 days Longitudinal Season, Weather
de Vries et al. (2019) Netherlands 10 50.0 Youth 12.5 NA 14 days Longitudinal Season, Weather
Declòs-Alió et al. (2019) Spain 227 56.0 Older adults NA NA 7 days Longitudinal Season
Deng and Fredriksen (2018) Norway 2123 49.6 Youth 9 ± 1.5 NA 7 days Cross-sectional Season
Dias et al. (2019) Switzerland, Belgium, United Kingdom, United States 1052 49.8 Youth 3.7 ± 0.4 NA 3 days Longitudinal Season, Weather
Diaz et al. (2016) United States 2096 54.2 Adults Range: 45–75 Black: 31.6% 7 days Cross-sectional Season
Dill et al. (2014) United States 353 NA Adults NA   3 days Longitudinal Weather
Duncan et al. (2008) New Zealand 1115 51.9 Youth Range: 5–16 Caucasian: 49.2%; Polynesian: 30.0%; Asian: 16.5%; Other: 4.3% 5 days Cross-sectional Season
Edwards et al. (2015) United States 372 48.0 Youth 3.4 ± 0.3 Caucasian: 88.0% African-American: 22.0% 3 days Longitudinal Season
Feinglass et al. (2011) United States 241 74.7 Adults < 50 years: (26.1%); 50–65 years: (39.3%); 66–75 years: (22.2%);  > 75 years: (12.5%) Caucasian/ Other: 75.1%; African-American: 17.8%; Hispanic/ Latino: 7.1% 7 days Longitudinal Weather
Goodman et al. (2012) United Kingdom 325 52.3 Youth Range: 8–11 NA 4 days Longitudinal Weather
Goodman et al. (2014) Australia, Brazil, Denmark, England, Estonia, Spain, Norway, Switzerland, United States 23,188 62.0 Youth Range: 5–16 NA 7 days Longitudinal Weather
Gracia-Marco et al. (2013) Sweden, Greece, Italy, Spain, Hungary, Belgium, France, Germany, Austria 2173 54.0 Youth 15 ± 1.2 NA 7 days Longitudinal Season
Griew et al. (2010) United Kingdom 1307 51.8 Youth Range: 10–11 NA 5 days Longitudinal Weather
Hagströmer et al. (2014) Sweden 1172 54.0 Adults 45 ± 15 NA 7 days Longitudinal Season
Hamilton et al. (2009) United Kingdom 96 51.1 Adults 41.0 ± 12.3 NA 4 weeks Longitudinal Weather
Harrison et al. (2011) United Kingdom 1794 55.0 Youth Range: 9–10 NA 7 days Longitudinal Weather
Harrison et al. (2015) United Kingdom 283 55.1 Youth Range: 9–14 NA 7 days Longitudinal Weather
Harrison et al. (2017) United Kingdom, Switzerland, Belgium, Australia, Denmark, Estonia, Norway, Madeira, United States 23,451 62.0 Youth Range: 3–18 NA 7 days Longitudinal Weather
Hjorth et al. (2013) Denmark 730 48.5 Youth 10.0 ± 0.6 NA 7 days Longitudinal Weather
Hoaas et al. (2019) Norway, Denmark, Australia 168 42.9 Adults Range: 60–73 NA 7 days Longitudinal Season
Hopkins et al. (2011) United States 145 59.3 Youth 10.7 ± 0.3 NA 7 days Longitudinal Season
Hoppmann et al. (2017) Canada 126 64.0 Older adults 71.9 ± 5 European: 62.0%; Asian: 36.0%; Other: 1.0%; Missing: 1.0% 10 days Longitudinal Weather
Hunter et al. (2019) Canada 149 47.0 Adults 19 ± 1.9 White: 59.7%; Other: 40.3% 7 days Longitudinal Weather
Jehn et al. (2014) Germany 15 40.0 Adults 66.7 ± 5.2 NA 6 months Longitudinal Season
Jones et al. (2017) Canada 42 24.0 Older adults 77.4 ± 4.7 NA 7 days Cross-sectional Weather
Jones et al. (2017) Canada 42 NA Older adults 77.4 ± 4.7 NA 7 days Longitudinal Season, Weather
Katapally et al. (2016) Canada 331 49.8 Youth 11.6 ± 1.1 NA 7 days Longitudinal Weather
Kharlova et al. (2020) Norway 2015 50.6 Youth 9.5 ± 1.8 NA 6 days Longitudinal Season
Kimura et al. (2015) Japan 39 56.0 Older adults 70.7 ± 3.2 NA 2 weeks Longitudinal Weather
King et al. (2011) United Kingdom 480 49.1 Youth NA NA 7 days Longitudinal Season
Kolle et al. (2009) Norway 1824 48.5 Youth Range: 9–15 NA 4 days Cross-sectional Weather
Kong et al. (2020) South Korea 555 43.8 Adults 61.1 ± 8.9 NA 7 days cross-sectional Weather
Koolhaas et al. (2017) Netherlands 1200 52.3 Older adults 77.5 ± 5.0 NA 7 days Cross-sectional Season
Larouche et al. (2019) Canada 1699 55.0 Youth 10.2 ± 1.0 NA 8 days Cross-sectional Season
Lewis et al. (2016) Australia and Canada 953 57.0 Youth 10.6 ± 0.4 NA 7 days Cross-sectional Season
Ma et al. (2018) Hong Kong 210 33.8 Adults 26.1 ± 8.7 NA 35 days Longitudinal Season
Martins et al. (2015) Brazil 16 50.0 Adults Range: 18–35 NA 6 days Longitudinal Weather
McCrorie et al. (2015) Scotland 33 54.5 Youth 12.2 ± 0.3 NA 8 days Cross-sectional Weather
McKee et al. (2012) Northern Ireland 85 38.8 Youth Range: 4–5 NA 6 days Longitudinal Weather
McMurdo et al. (2012) United Kingdom 547 54.0 Older adults 79 ± 8 NA 7 days Cross-sectional Weather
Mitchell et al. (2018) United States 575 34.3 Adults 38.6 ± 0.1 Hispanic: 100.0% 1 day Cross-sectional Weather
Mitsui et al. (2010) Japan 50 0.0 Adults 43.6 ± 10.8 NA 7 days Longitudinal Weather
Nagy et al. (2019) United Kingdom 108 51.0 Youth 7.5 ± 0.5 Caucasian: 59.0%; South Asian: 41.0% 7 days Cross-sectional Season
Nakashima et al. (2019) Japan 22 86.4 Older adults 75.1 ± 7.3 NA 7 days Longitudinal Season
Newman et al. (2009) United States 500 100.0 Adults 57 ± 2.9 African-American: 13.2% 7 days Cross-sectional Season
Nilsen et al. (2019) Norway 1154 49.0 Youth 4.7 ± 0.9 NA 14 days Longitudinal Season
O’Connell et al. (2013) United Kingdom 46 72.0 Adults 41.7 ± 14.4 NA 7 days Longitudinal Season
Ogawa et al. (2018) Japan 35 65.7 Adults 69.3 ± 5.3 NA 1 month Longitudinal Season
Oliver et al. (2011) New Zealand 135 60.0 Youth Range: 5–6 NA 8 days Cross-sectional Season
Pagels et al. (2016) Sweden 179 48.6 Youth 11.1 ± 2.1 NA 5 days Longitudinal Season
Patnode et al. (2010) United States 294 49.3 Youth 15.4 ± 1.7 Caucasian: 93.5%; Other: 6.5% 7 days Cross-sectional Season, weather
Pearce et al. (2012) United Kingdom 482 52.0 Youth Range: 8–10 NA 7 days Longitudinal Season
Pechova et al. (2019) Czech Republic, Slovakia & Poland 83 89.7 Adults 65 ± 6 NA 8 days Longitudinal Season, Weather
Pelclova et al. (2010) Czech Republic 13 84.6 Youth 15.6 ± 0.5 NA 10 months Longitudinal Weather
Prins and van Lenthe (2015) Netherlands 43 52.5 Adults NA NA 7 days Longitudinal Weather
Rahman et al. (2019) Canada 972 58.0 Youth 10.9 ± 0.4 NA 7 days Cross-sectional Season, weather
Remmers et al. (2017) Australia 307 52.0 Youth 11.1 ± 0.7 NA 7 days Longitudinal Season, Weather
Ridgers et al. (2015) Australia 326 50.3 Youth 10 ± 0.7 NA 7 days Cross-sectional Season
Ridgers et al. (2018) Australia 326 50.3 Youth Range: 8–11 NA 7 days Longitudinal Season
Robbins et al. (2013) Canada 38 26.3 Adults 54 ± 7.0 NA 7 days Cross-sectional Weather
Rosenthal et al. (2020) United States 266 58.4 Adults 52.1 ± 14 NA NA Cross-sectional Weather
Rowlands et al. (2009) United Kingdom 64 50.0 Youth 9.9 ± 0.3 NA 6 days Longitudinal Season
Sartini et al. (2017) United Kingdom 1361 0.0 Older adults 78.5 ± 4.6 NA 7 days Longitudinal Weather
Schepps et al. (2018) United States 16,741 100.0 Older adults 72.0 ± 5.7 NA 7 days Cross-sectional Weather
Sewell et al. (2010) United Kingdom 95 41.0 Adults 65.5 ± 8.5 NA 2 days Cross-sectional Season
Shen et al. (2013) United States 46 56.5 Youth 4.2 ± 0.2 Caucasian: 68.0%; Other: 32.0% 5 days Cross-sectional Weather
Silva et al. (2011) Portugal 24 50.0 Youth 11.0 ± 1.5 NA 7 days Longitudinal Season
Sit et al. (2019) Hong Kong 270 40.0 Youth NA NA 3 days Longitudinal Season
Stabell et al. (2020) United States 38 10.5 Adults Range: 50–75 Caucasian:81.6%; Other: 18.4% 24 weeks Longitudinal Weather
Sugino et al. (2012) Japan 9 0.0 Adults 71.7 ± 8.3 NA 2 weeks Cross-sectional Season
Sumukadas et al. (2008) Scotland 127 71.0 Older adults 78.6 ± 6.5 NA 7 days Longitudinal Season
Van Kann et al. (2016) Netherlands 520 55.6 Youth 10.1 ± 0.7 NA 7 days Longitudinal Weather
Wang et al. (2017) China 34 38.2 Adults 31 ± 10 NA 7 days Longitudinal Weather
Witham et al. (2014) United Kingdom 547 54.3 Older adults 78.5 ± 7.7 NA 7 days Longitudinal Weather
Wong et al. (2020) Mexico 559 49.0 Youth 4.8 ± 0.5 NA 7 days Longitudinal Weather
Wu et al. (2017) United Kingdom 4051 55.7 Adults 67.4 ± 9.5 NA 7 days Cross-sectional Weather
Yildrim et al. (2012) Belgium, Greece, Hungary, Netherlands, Switzerland 722 53.0 Youth 11.6 ± 0.9 NA 6 days Cross-sectional Weather
Zheng et al. (2019) Hong Kong 740 40.9 Youth 14.7 ± 1.6 Chinese: 100.0% 7 days Longitudinal Weather