Aubert S, Barnes JD, Abdeta C, Abi Nader P, Adeniyi AF, Aguilar-Farias N, et al. Global matrix 3.0 physical activity report card grades for children and youth: results and analysis from 49 countries. J Phys Act Health. 2018;15(s2):S251–S73.
Bull FC, Al-Ansari SS, Biddle S, Borodulin K, Buman MP, Cardon G, et al. World Health Organization 2020 guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Br J Sports Med. 2020;54(24):1451–62.
Remmers T, Sleddens EF, Gubbels JS, De Vries SI, Mommers M, Penders J, et al. Relationship between physical activity and the development of body mass index in children. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2014;46(1):177–84.
Moore LL, Gao D, Bradlee ML, Cupples LA, Sundarajan-Ramamurti A, Proctor MH, et al. Does early physical activity predict body fat change throughout childhood? Prev Med. 2003;37(1):10–7.
Sääkslahti A, Numminen P, Varstala V, Helenius H, Tammi A, Viikari J, et al. Physical activity as a preventive measure for coronary heart disease risk factors in early childhood. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2004;14(3):143–9.
Biddle SJ, Asare M. Physical activity and mental health in children and adolescents: a review of reviews. Br J Sports Med. 2011;45:886–95.
Katzmarzyk PT, Denstel KD, Beals K, Bolling C, Wright C, Crouter SE, et al. Results from the United States of America’s 2016 report card on physical activity for children and youth. J Phys Act Health. 2016;13(11 Suppl 2):S307–S13.
Knell G, Durand CP, Kohl HW, Wu IH, Gabriel KP. Prevalence and likelihood of meeting sleep, physical activity, and screen-time guidelines among US youth. JAMA Pediatr. 2019;173(4):387–9.
Ahmad FB, Anderson RN. The leading causes of death in the US for 2020. JAMA. 2021;325(18):1829–30.
Sohrabi C, Alsafi Z, O’Neill N, Khan M, Kerwan A, Al-Jabir A, et al. World Health Organization declares global emergency: A review of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19). Int J Surg. 2020;76:71–6.
Guan H, Okely AD, Aguilar-Farias N, del Pozo CB, Draper CE, El Hamdouchi A, et al. Promoting healthy movement behaviours among children during the COVID-19 pandemic. Lancet Child Adolesc Health. 2020;4(6):416–8.
Stockwell S, Trott M, Tully M, Shin J, Barnett Y, Butler L, et al. Changes in physical activity and sedentary behaviours from before to during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown: a systematic review. BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med. 2021;7(1):e000960.
Hasson R, Sallis JF, Coleman N, Kaushal N, Nocera VG, Keith N. COVID-19: implications for physical activity, health disparities, and health equity. Am J Lifestyle Med. 2021;0(0):15598276211029222. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/15598276211029222.
Paterson DC, Ramage K, Moore SA, Riazi N, Tremblay MS, Faulkner G. Exploring the impact of COVID-19 on the movement behaviors of children and youth: a scoping review of evidence after the first year. J Sport Health Sci. 2021;10(6):675–89.
Moore SA, Faulkner G, Rhodes RE, Brussoni M, Chulak-Bozzer T, Ferguson LJ, et al. Impact of the COVID-19 virus outbreak on movement and play behaviours of Canadian children and youth: a national survey. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2020;17(1):1–11.
Guerrero MD, Vanderloo LM, Rhodes RE, Faulkner G, Moore SA, Tremblay MS. Canadian children's and youth's adherence to the 24-h movement guidelines during the COVID-19 pandemic: a decision tree analysis. J Sport Health Sci. 2020;9(4):313–21.
Zhang X, Zhu W, Kang S, Qiu L, Lu Z, Sun Y. Association between physical activity and mood states of children and adolescents in social isolation during the COVID-19 epidemic. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(20):7666.
Ng K, Cooper J, McHale F, Clifford J, Woods C. Barriers and facilitators to changes in adolescent physical activity during COVID-19. BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med. 2020;6(1):e000919.
Cachón-Zagalaz J, Zagalaz-Sánchez M, Arufe-Giráldez V, Sanmiguel-Rodríguez A, González-Valero G. Physical activity and daily routine among children aged 0–12 during the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18(2):703.
Pombo A, Luz C, Rodrigues LP, Ferreira C, Cordovil R. Correlates of children's physical activity during the COVID-19 confinement in Portugal. Public Health. 2020;189:14–9.
Siegle CBH, Pombo A, Luz C, Rodrigues LP, Cordovil R, CdSCd S. Influences of family and household characteristics on children’s level of physical activity during social distancing due to covid-19 in Brazil. Revista Paulista de Pediatria. 2020;39:e2020297.
Medrano M, Cadenas-Sanchez C, Oses M, Arenaza L, Amasene M, Labayen I. Changes in lifestyle behaviours during the COVID-19 confinement in Spanish children: a longitudinal analysis from the MUGI project. Pediatr Obes. 2021;16(4):e12731.
Mitra R, Moore SA, Gillespie M, Faulkner G, Vanderloo LM, Chulak-Bozzer T, et al. Healthy movement behaviours in children and youth during the COVID-19 pandemic: exploring the role of the neighbourhood environment. Health Place. 2020;65:102418.
Zenic N, Taiar R, Gilic B, Blazevic M, Maric D, Pojskic H, et al. Levels and changes of physical activity in adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic: contextualizing urban vs. rural living environment. Appl Sci. 2020;10(11):3997.
Yang S, Guo B, Ao L, Yang C, Zhang L, Zhou J, et al. Obesity and activity patterns before and during COVID-19 lockdown among youths in China. Clin Obes. 2020;10(6):e12416.
Yomoda K, Kurita S. Influence of social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic on physical activity in children: a scoping review of the literature. J Exerc Sci Fit. 2021;19(3):195–203.
Okely AD, Kariippanon KE, Guan H, Taylor EK, Suesse T, Cross PL, et al. Global effect of COVID-19 pandemic on physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep among 3-to 5-year-old children: a longitudinal study of 14 countries. BMC Public Health. 2021;21(1):1–15.
Burkart S, Parker H, Weaver RG, Beets MW, Jones A, Adams EL, et al. Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on elementary schoolers' physical activity, sleep, screen time and diet: a quasi-experimental interrupted time series study. Pediatr Obes. 2022;17(1):e12846.
Ten Velde G, Lubrecht J, Arayess L, van Loo C, Hesselink M, Reijnders D, et al. Physical activity behaviour and screen time in Dutch children during the COVID-19 pandemic: pre-, during-and post-school closures. Pediatr Obes. 2021;16:e12779.
Hoelscher DM, Ganzar LA, Salvo D, Kohl HW III, Pérez A, Brown HS, et al. Effects of large-scale municipal safe routes to school infrastructure on student active travel and physical activity: design, methods, and baseline data of the safe travel environment evaluation in Texas schools (STREETS) natural experiment. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022;19(3):1810.
Choi L, Liu Z, Matthews CE, Buchowski MS. Validation of accelerometer wear and nonwear time classification algorithm. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43(2):357.
Rich C, Geraci M, Griffiths L, Sera F, Dezateux C, Cortina-Borja M. Quality control methods in accelerometer data processing: defining minimum wear time. PLoS One. 2013;8(6):e67206.
Evenson KR, Catellier DJ, Gill K, Ondrak KS, McMurray RG. Calibration of two objective measures of physical activity for children. J Sports Sci. 2008;26(14):1557–65.
Kerr J, Rosenberg D, Sallis JF, Saelens BE, Frank LD, Conway TL. Active commuting to school: associations with environment and parental concerns. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006;38(4):787–93.
Sampson RJ, Raudenbush SW, Earls F. Neighborhoods and violent crime: a multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science. 1997;277(5328):918–24.
Cerin E, Saelens BE, Sallis JF, Frank LD. Neighborhood environment walkability scale: validity and development of a short form. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006;38:1682–91.
National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. KidsWalk-to-school; a guide to promote walking to school. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2000.
Ram N, Grimm KJ. Methods and measures: growth mixture modeling: a method for identifying differences in longitudinal change among unobserved groups. Int J Behav Dev. 2009;33(6):565–76.
Proust-Lima C, Philipps V, Diakite A, Liquet B, Proust MC, Lima P. Package ‘lcmm’. J Stat Softw. 2017;78(2):1–56.
Sallis JF, Prochaska JJ, Taylor WC. A review of correlates of physical activity of children and adolescents. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000;32(5):963–75.
Pate RR, Dowda M, Dishman RK, Colabianchi N, Saunders RP, McIver KL. Change in children's physical activity: predictors in the transition from elementary to middle school. Am J Prev Med. 2019;56(3):e65–73.
Hills A. Physical activity and movement in children: its consequences for growth and development. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 1995;4(1):43–5.
Cooper AR, Goodman A, Page AS, Sherar LB, Esliger DW, van Sluijs EM, et al. Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in youth: the international children’s accelerometry database (ICAD). Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2015;12(1):113.
Farooq MA, Parkinson KN, Adamson AJ, Pearce MS, Reilly JK, Hughes AR, et al. Timing of the decline in physical activity in childhood and adolescence: Gateshead millennium cohort study. Br J Sports Med. 2018;52(15):1002–6.
Farooq A, Martin A, Janssen X, Wilson MG, Gibson AM, Hughes A, et al. Longitudinal changes in moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity in children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes Rev. 2020;21(1):e12953.
Carson V, Spence JC. Seasonal variation in physical activity among children and adolescents: a review. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2010;22(1):81–92.
Parsons TJ, Power C, Logan S, Summerbelt C. Childhood predictors of adult obesity: a systematic review. Int J Obes. 1999;23:S1–107.
Piercy KL, Troiano RP, Ballard RM, Carlson SA, Fulton JE, Galuska DA, et al. The physical activity guidelines for Americans. Jama. 2018;320(19):2020–8.
Brazendale K, Beets MW, Weaver RG, Pate RR, Turner-McGrievy GM, Kaczynski AT, et al. Understanding differences between summer vs. school obesogenic behaviors of children: the structured days hypothesis. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2017;14(1):1–14.
Richards AB, Minou M, Sheldrick MP, Swindell N, Griffiths LJ, Hudson J, et al. A socioecological perspective of how physical activity and sedentary behaviour at home changed during the first lockdown of COVID-19 restrictions: the HomeSPACE project. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022;19(9):5070.
Biddle SJ, Atkin AJ, Cavill N, Foster C. Correlates of physical activity in youth: a review of quantitative systematic reviews. Int Rev Sport Exerc Psychol. 2011;4(1):25–49.
Biddle SJ, Braithwaite R, Pearson N. The effectiveness of interventions to increase physical activity among young girls: a meta-analysis. Prev Med. 2014;62:119–31.
Owen MB, Curry WB, Kerner C, Newson L, Fairclough SJ. The effectiveness of school-based physical activity interventions for adolescent girls: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Prev Med. 2017;105:237–49.
Gilbert LK, Strine TW, Szucs LE, Crawford TN, Parks SE, Barradas DT, et al. Racial and ethnic differences in parental attitudes and concerns about school reopening during the COVID-19 pandemic—United States, July 2020. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020;69(49):1848.
Pabayo R, Belsky J, Gauvin L, Curtis S. Do area characteristics predict change in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity from ages 11 to 15 years? Soc Sci Med. 2011;72(3):430–8.
Salahuddin M, Nehme E, Ranjit N, Kim Y-J, Oluyomi AO, Dowdy D, et al. Does parents’ social cohesion influence their perception of neighborhood safety and their Children’s active commuting to and from school? J Phys Act Health. 2016;13(12):1301–9.
Schoeppe S, Duncan MJ, Badland HM, Alley S, Williams S, Rebar AL, et al. Socio-demographic factors and neighbourhood social cohesion influence adults’ willingness to grant children greater independent mobility: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2015;15(1):690.
Chung B, Jones L, Jones A, Corbett CE, Booker T, Wells KB, et al. Using community arts events to enhance collective efficacy and community engagement toAddress depression in an African American community. Am J Public Health. 2009;99(2):237–44.
Jennings V, Bamkole O. The relationship between social cohesion and urban green space: an avenue for health promotion. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019;16(3):452.
Parajára MC, de Castro BM, Coelho DB, Meireles AL. Are neighborhood characteristics associated with sedentary behavior in adolescents? A systematic review. Int J Environ Health Res. 2019;30:1–21.
Coombes E, van Sluijs E, Jones A. Is environmental setting associated with the intensity and duration of children's physical activity? Findings from the SPEEDY GPS study. Health Place. 2013;20:62–5.
McIver KL, Brown WH, Pfeiffer KA, Dowda M, Pate RR. Assessing children's physical activity in their homes: the observational system for recording physical activity in children-home. J Appl Behav Anal. 2009;42(1):1–16.
Perez D, Thalken JK, Ughelu NE, Knight CJ, Massey WV. Nowhere to go: Parents' descriptions of Children's physical activity during a global pandemic. Front Public Health. 2021;9:642932.
Price JH, Murnan J. Research limitations and the necessity of reporting them. Am J Health Educ. 2004;35(2):66.
Ding D, Sallis JF, Kerr J, Lee S, Rosenberg DE. Neighborhood environment and physical activity among youth. Am J Prev Med. 2011;41(4):442–55.
Watson KB, Whitfield GP, Huntzicker G, Omura JD, Ussery E, Chen TJ, et al. Cross-sectional study of changes in physical activity behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic among US adults. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2021;18(1):1–10.