2007 Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey- Main Findings. 2008, Department of Health and Ageing, Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, and Australian Food and Grocery Council, Canberra (Australia)
Cowin I, Emmett P: Diet in a group of 18-month-old children in South West England, and comparison with the results of a national survey. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2000, 13 (2): 87-100. 10.1046/j.1365-277x.2000.00220.x.
Siega-Riz AM, Deming DM, Reidy KC, Fox MK, Condon E, Briefel RR: Food consumption patterns of infants and toddlers: where are we now?. J Am Diet Assoc. 2010, 110 (12, Supplement 1): S38-S51. 10.1016/j.jada.2010.09.001.
Biro FM, Wien M: Childhood obesity and adult morbidities. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010, 91 (5): 1499S-1505S. 10.3945/ajcn.2010.28701B.
World Health Organization: Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases: report of a joint WHO/FAO expert consultation, 28 January - 1 February 2002. (WHO Technical Report Series 916). Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2003.
Fund WCR: Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective. 2007, Washington, DC, American Institute for Cancer Research
Campbell KJ, Hesketh KD: Strategies which aim to positively impact on weight, physical activity, diet and sedentary behaviours in children from zero to five years. A systematic review of the literature. Obes Rev. 2007, 8: 327-338. 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2006.00305.x.
Hesketh KD, Campbell KJ: Interventions to prevent obesity in 0-5 year olds: an updated systematic review of the literature. Obesity. 2010, 18: S27-S35. 10.1038/oby.2009.429.
Vereecken C, Maes L: Young children’s dietary habits and associations with the mothers’ nutritional knowledge and attitudes. Appetite. 2010, 54 (1): 44-51. 10.1016/j.appet.2009.09.005.
Blaylock JR, Variyam JN, Lin B-H: Maternal Nutrition Knowledge and Children’s Diet Quality and Nutrient Intakes. 1999, Washington, Food and Rural Economics Division, Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture
Gregory JE, Paxton SJ, Brozovic AM: Maternal feeding practices predict fruit and vegetable consumption in young children. Results of a 12-month longitudinal study. Appetite. 2011, 57 (1): 167-172. 10.1016/j.appet.2011.04.012.
Wardle J, Carnell S, Cooke L: Parental control over feeding and children’s fruit and vegetable intake: how are they related?. J Am Diet Assoc. 2005, 105 (2): 227-232. 10.1016/j.jada.2004.11.006.
Ogden J, Reynolds R, Smith A: Expanding the concept of parental control: a role for overt and covert control in children’s snacking behaviour?. Appetite. 2006, 47: 100-106. 10.1016/j.appet.2006.03.330.
Kröller K, Warschburger P: Associations between maternal feeding style and food intake of children with a higher risk for overweight. Appetite. 2008, 51 (1): 166-172. 10.1016/j.appet.2008.01.012.
Kröller K, Warschburger P: Maternal feeding strategies and child’s food intake: considering weight and demographic influences using structural equation modeling. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2009, 6 (1): 78-10.1186/1479-5868-6-78. PubMed PMID: doi:10.1186/1479-5868-6-78
Vereecken CA, Keukelier E, Maes L: Influence of mother’s educational level on food parenting practices and food habits of young children. Appetite. 2004, 43: 93-103. 10.1016/j.appet.2004.04.002.
Campbell K, Hesketh K, Silverii A, Abbott G: Maternal self-efficacy regarding children’s eating and sedentary behaviours in the early years: associations with children’s food intake and sedentary behaviours. Int J Pediatr Obes. 2010, 5: 501-508. 10.3109/17477161003777425.
Fletcher A, Wolfenden L, Wyse R, Bowman J, McElduff P, Duncan S: A randomised controlled trial and mediation analysis of the `Healthy Habits’, telephone-based dietary intervention for preschool children. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2013, 10: 43-10.1186/1479-5868-10-43.
Wyse R, Campbell E, Nathan N, Wolfenden L: Associations between characteristics of the home food environment and fruit and vegetables intake in preschool children: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2011, 11: 938-10.1186/1471-2458-11-938.
Vereecken C, Rovner A, Maes L: Associations of parenting styles, parental feeding practices and child characteristics with young children’s fruit and vegetable consumption. Appetite. 2010, 55 (3): 589-596. 10.1016/j.appet.2010.09.009.
MacKinnon DP: Introduction to Statistical Mediation Analysis. 2008, United States, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
Lockwood CM, DeFrancesco CA, Elliot DL, Beresford SAA, Toobert DJ: Mediation analyses: applications in nutrition research and reading the literature. J Am Diet Assoc. 2010, 110: 753-762. 10.1016/j.jada.2010.02.005.
Cerin E, MacKinnon DP: A commentary on current practice in mediating veriable analyses in behavioural nutrition and physical activity. Public Health Nutr. 2008, 12 (8): 1182-1188. 10.1017/S1368980008003649.
MacKinnon DP, Dwyer JH: Estimating mediated effects in prevention studies. Eval Rev. 1993, 17 (2): 144-158. 10.1177/0193841X9301700202.
Lubans DR, Foster C, Biddle SJH: A review of mediators of behavior in interventions to promote physical activity among children and adolescents. Prev Med. 2008, 47 (5): 463-470. 10.1016/j.ypmed.2008.07.011.
Cerin E, Barnett A, Baranowski T: Testing theories of dietary behavior change in youth using the mediating variable model with intervention programs. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2009, 41 (5): 309-318. 10.1016/j.jneb.2009.03.129.
Spence AC, McNaughton SA, Lioret S, Hesketh KD, Crawford DA, Campbell KJ: A health promotion intervention can affect diet quality in early childhood. J Nutr. 2013, 143: 1672-1678. 10.3945/jn.113.177931.
Campbell K, Hesketh K, Crawford D, Salmon J, Ball K, McCallum Z: The Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (INFANT) an early intervention to prevent childhood obesity: cluster randomised controlled trial. BMC Public Health. 2008, 8: 103-10.1186/1471-2458-8-103.
Campbell KJ, Lioret S, McNaughton SA, Crawford DA, Salmon J, Ball K, McCallum Z, Gerner BE, Spence AC, Cameron AJ, Hnatiuk JA, Ukoumunne OC, Gold L, Abbott G, Hesketh KD: A parent-focused intervention to reduce infant obesity risk behaviors: a randomized trial. Pediatrics. 2013, 131 (4): 652-660. 10.1542/peds.2012-2576.
Scott D, Brady S, Glynn P: New mother groups as a social network intervention: consumer and maternal and child health nurse perspectives. Aust J Adv Nurs. 2001, 18 (4): 23-29.
Nelson CS, Wissow LS, Cheng TL: Effectiveness of anticipatory guidance: recent developments. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2003, 15: 630-635. 10.1097/00008480-200312000-00015.
Satter E: Feeding dynamics: helping children to eat well. J Pediatr Health Care. 1995, 9 (4): 178-184. 10.1016/S0891-5245(05)80033-1.
Musher-Eizenman D, Holub S: Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire: validation of a new measure of parental feeding practices. J Pediatr Psychol. 2007, 32 (8): 960-972. 10.1093/jpepsy/jsm037.
Sim J, Wright C: Research in Health Care: Concepts, Designs and Methods. 2000, Cheltenham, UK, Stanley Thornes Ltd
Ireland P, Jolley D, Giles G, O’Dea K, Powles J, Rutishauser I, Wahlqvist ML, Williams J: Development of the Melbourne FFQ: a food frequency questionnaire for use in an Australian prospective study involving an ethnically diverse cohort. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 1994, 3 (1): 19-31.
Hodge A, Patterson AJ, Brown WJ, Ireland P, Giles G: The Anti Cancer Council of Victoria FFQ: relative validity of nutrient intakes compared with weighed food records in young to middle-aged women in a study of iron supplementation. Aust N Z J Public Health. 2000, 24 (6): 576-583. 10.1111/j.1467-842X.2000.tb00520.x.
Epstein LH, Gordy CC, Raynor HA, Beddome M, Kilanowski CK, Paluch R: Increasing fruit and vegetable intake and decreasing fat and sugar intake in families at risk for childhood obesity. Obes Res. 2001, 9 (3): 171-178. 10.1038/oby.2001.18. PubMed PMID: 1030272068. English
Epstein LH, Paluch RA, Beecher MD, Roemmich JN: Increasing healthy eating vs. reducing high energy-dense foods to treat pediatric obesity. Obesity. 2008, 16 (2): 318-326. 10.1038/oby.2007.61. PubMed PMID: 1030421539; 18239639. English
Australian Dietary Guidelines. 2013, National Health and Medical Research Council, Canberra
FFQ User Information Guide. 2008, Cancer Council of Victoria, Melbourne, VIC
Conway JM, Ingwersen LA, Vinyard BT, Moshfegh AJ: Effectiveness of the US Department of Agriculture 5-step multiple-pass method in assessing food intake in obese and nonobese women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003, 77 (5): 1171-1178.
AUSNUT 2007 - Australian Food, Supplement and Nutrient Database for Estimation of Population Nutrient Intakes. 2008, Food Standards Australia New Zealand, Canberra
Lioret S, McNaughton SA, Spence AC, Crawford D, Campbell KJ: Tracking of dietary intakes in early childhood: the Melbourne InFANT Program. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013, 67: 275-281. 10.1038/ejcn.2012.218.
Campbell KJ, Hendrie G, Nowson C, Grimes CA, Riley M, Lioret S, McNaughton SA: Sources and correlates of sodium consumption in the first 2 years of life. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2014, 114 (10): 1525-1532. 10.1016/j.jand.2014.04.028. e2
Wiltheiss GA, Lovelady CA, West DG, Brouwer RJN, Krause KM, Østbye T: Diet quality and weight change among overweight and obese postpartum women enrolled in a behavioral intervention program. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2013, 113 (1): 54-62. 10.1016/j.jand.2012.08.012.
Huybrechts I, Vereecken C, De Bacquer D, Vandevijvere S, Van Oyen H, Maes L, Vanhauwaert E, Temme L, De Backer G, De Henauw S: Reproducibility and validity of a diet quality index for children assessed using a FFQ. Br J Nutr. 2010, 104 (01): 135-144. 10.1017/S0007114510000231.
Kranz S, Findeis JL, Shrestha SS: Use of the Revised Children’s Diet Quality Index to assess preschooler’s diet quality, its sociodemographic predictors, and its association with body weight status. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2008, 84 (1): 26-34. 10.2223/JPED.1745.
Kranz S, Hartman T, Siega-Riz AM, Herring AH: A diet quality index for American preschoolers based on current dietary intake recommendations and an indicator of energy balance. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006, 106: 1594-1604. 10.1016/j.jada.2006.07.005.
LaRowe TL, Moeller S, Adams AK: Beverage patterns, diet quality, and body mass index of US preschool and school-aged children. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007, 107: 1124-1133. 10.1016/j.jada.2007.04.013.
Vitolo MR, Rauber F, Campagnolo PDB, Feldens CA, Hoffman DJ: Maternal dietary counseling in the first year of life is associated with higher healthy eating index in childhood. J Nutr. 2010, 140 (11): 2002-2007. 10.3945/jn.110.125211.
Manios Y, Kourlaba G, Grammatikaki E, Androutsos O, Moschonis G, Roma-Giannikou E: Development of a diet-lifestyle quality index for young children and its relation to obesity: the Preschoolers Diet-Lifestyle Index. Public Health Nutr. 2010, 13 (12): 2000-2009. 10.1017/S1368980010000698.
Crombie IK, Kiezebrink K, Irvine L, Wrieden W, Swanson V, Power K, Slane PW: What maternal factors influence the diet of 2-year-old children living in deprived areas? A cross-sectional survey. Public Health Nutr. 2008, 12 (8): 1254-1260. 10.1017/S1368980008003819.
Ruel MT, Menon P: Child feeding practices are associated with child nutritional status in Latin America: innovative uses of the Demographic and Health Surveys. J Nutr. 2002, 132: 1180-1187.
Bowman SA, Friday JE, Moshfegh AJ: MyPyramid Equivalents Database, 2.0 for USDA survey foods, 2003-2004: documentation and user guide. In Beltsville, MD: Food Surveys Research Group. Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture; 2008.
McCullough ML, Feskanich D, Rimm EB, Giovannucci EL, Ascherio A, Variyam JN, Spiegelman D, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC: Adherence to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and risk of major chronic disease in men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000, 72 (5): 1223-1231.
van der Horst K, Oenema A, te Velde SJ, Brug J: Do individual cognitions mediate the association of socio-cultural and physical environmental factors with adolescent sports participation?. Public Health Nutr. 2010, 13 (10A): 1746-1754. 10.1017/S1368980010002314.
Tak NI, Te Velde SJ, Brug J: Long-term effects of the Dutch Schoolgruiten Project - promoting fruit and vegetable consumption among primary-school children. Public Health Nutr. 2008, 12 (8): 1213-1223. 10.1017/S1368980008003777.
Haerens L, Cerin E, Deforche B, Maes L, De Bourdeaudhuij I: Explaining the effects of a 1-year intervention promoting a low fat diet in adolescent girls: a mediation analysis. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2007, 4: 55-10.1186/1479-5868-4-55.
Leslie E, Cerin E, Kremer P: Perceived neighbourhood environment and park use as mediators of the effect of area socio-economic status on walking behaviours. J Phys Act Health. 2010, 7: 802-810.
MacKinnon DP, Lockwood CM, Hoffman JM, West SG, Sheets V: A comparison of methods to test mediation and other intervening variable effects. Psychol Methods. 2002, 7 (1): 83-104. 10.1037/1082-989X.7.1.83.
Krause MR, Serlin RC, Ward SE, Rony RYZ, Ezenwa MO, Naab F: Testing mediation in nursing research. Nurs Res. 2010, 59 (4): 288-294. 10.1097/NNR.0b013e3181dd26b3.
Reynolds KD, Bishop DB, Chou C-P, Xie B, Nebeling L, Perry CL: Contrasting mediating variables in two 5-a-day nutrition intervention programs. Prev Med. 2004, 39 (5): 882-893. 10.1016/j.ypmed.2004.03.022.
Langenberg P, Ballesteros M, Feldman R, Damron D, Havas S: Psychosocial factors and intervention-associated changes in those factors as correlates of change in fruit and vegetable consumption in the Maryland WIC 5 A Day promotion program. Ann Behav Med. 2000, 22 (4): 307-315. 10.1007/BF02895667.
Campbell MK, Turner-McGrievy G, Havas S, Buller D, Nebeling L: Mediation of adult fruit and vegetable consumption in the national 5 A Day for Better Health community studies. Ann Behav Med. 2008, 35: 49-60. 10.1007/s12160-007-9002-y.
Wen LM, Baur LA, Simpson JM, Rissel C, Wardle K, Flood VM: Effectiveness of home based early intervention on children’s BMI at age 2: randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2012, 344: e3732-10.1136/bmj.e3732.
Daniels LA, Mallan KM, Battistutta D, Nicholson JM, Perry R, Magarey A: Evaluation of an intervention to promote protective infant feeding practices to prevent childhood obesity: outcomes of the NOURISH RCT at 14 months of age and 6 months post the first of two intervention modules. Int J Obes. 2012, 36: 1292-1298. 10.1038/ijo.2012.96.
Lioret S, Campbell KJ, Crawford D, Spence AC, Hesketh K, McNaughton SA: A parent focused child obesity prevention intervention improves some mother obesity risk behaviours: the Melbourne InFANT program.Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2012, 9(100) doi: 10.1186/1479-5868-9-100..
Reynolds KD, Yaroch AL, Franklin FA, Maloy J: Testing mediating variables in a school-based nutrition intervention program. Health Psychol. 2002, 21 (1): 51-60. 10.1037/0278-6220.127.116.11.
Paw MJM CA, Singh AS, Brug J, van Mechelen W: Why did soft drink consumption decrease but screen time not? Mediating mechanisms in a school-based obesity prevention program.(Research). Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2008, 5 (41): 41.
Bere E, Veierod MB, Bjelland M, Klepp K-I: Outcome and process evaluation of a Norwegian school-randomized fruit and vegetable intervention: Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks (FVMM). Health Educ Res. 2005, 21 (2): 258-267. 10.1093/her/cyh062.
Cerin E, Taylor LM, Leslie E, Owen N: Small-scale randomized controlled trials need more powerful methods of mediational analysis that the Baron-Kenny method. J Clin Epidemiol. 2006, 59: 457-464. 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2005.11.008.
Ventura AK, Birch LL: Does parenting affect children’s eating and weight status?. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2008, 5: 15-10.1186/1479-5868-5-15.
Conway JM, Ingwersen LA, Moshfegh AJ: Accuracy of dietary recall using the USDA five-step multiple-pass method in men: An observational validation study. J Am Diet Assoc. 2004, 104 (4): 595-603. 10.1016/j.jada.2004.01.007.
Australian Health Survey: Users’ Guide, 2011-13. 2014, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra, Australia
Willett WC: Nutritional Epidemiology. 1998, Oxford University Press, New York
Räsänen M, Lehtinen J-C, Niinikoski H, Keskinen S, Ruottinen S, Salminen M, Ronnemaa T, Viikari J, Simell O: Dietary patterns and nutrient intakes of 7-year-old children taking part in an atherosclerosis prevention project in Finland. J Am Diet Assoc. 2002, 102 (4): 518-524. 10.1016/S0002-8223(02)90118-5.
Nicklas TA, Baranowski T, Cullen KW, Berenson G: Eating patterns, dietary quality and obesity. J Am Coll Nutr. 2001, 20 (6): 599-608. 10.1080/07315724.2001.10719064.