WHO. Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. Geneva: WHO Technical Report Series 894; 2000. p. 252. Available at: http://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/obesity/WHO_TRS_894/en/. Accessed 10 Mar 2016.
Butland B, Jebb S, Kopelman P, McPherson K, Thomas S, Mardell J et al. Foresight, Tackling Obesities: Future Choices, Project Report 2nd Edition, UK Government Office for Science: London; 2007. Available at: http://www.foresight.gov.uk/Obesity/17.pdf. Accessed 10 Mar 2016.
Swinburn BA, Sacks G, Hall KD, McPherson K, Finegood DT, Moodie ML, et al. The global obesity pandemic: shaped by global drivers and local environments. Lancet Lond Engl. 2011;378:804–14.
Dunton GF, Berrigan D, Ballard-Barbash R, Graubard B, Atienza AA. Joint associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with body mass index: results from a time use survey of US adults. Int J Obes (Lond). 2009;33:1427–36.
Hu FB, Li TY, Colditz GA, Willett WC, Manson JE. Television watching and other sedentary behaviors in relation to risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus in women. JAMA. 2003;289:1785–91.
Omorou AY, Coste J, Escalon H, Vuillemin A. Patterns of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in the general population in France: cluster analysis with personal and socioeconomic correlates. J Public Health Oxf Engl. 2016;38:483–92.
Thorp AA, Owen N, Neuhaus M, Dunstan DW. Sedentary behaviors and subsequent health outcomes in adults a systematic review of longitudinal studies, 1996-2011. Am J Prev Med. 2011;41:207–15.
Audrain-McGovern J, Benowitz N. Cigarette smoking, nicotine, and body weight. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2011;90:164–8.
Traversy G, Chaput J-P. Alcohol consumption and obesity: an update. Curr Obes Rep. 2015;4:122–30.
Dare S, Mackay DF, Pell JP. Relationship between smoking and obesity: a cross-sectional study of 499,504 middle-aged adults in the UK general population. PLoS One. 2015;10:e0123579.
Capers PL, Fobian AD, Kaiser KA, Borah R, Allison DB. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of the impact of sleep duration on adiposity and components of energy balance. Obes Rev Off J Int Assoc Stud Obes. 2015;16:771–82.
Chaput J-P, Lord C, Aubertin-Leheudre M, Dionne IJ, Khalil A, Tremblay A. Is overweight/obesity associated with short sleep duration in older women? Aging Clin Exp Res. 2007;19:290–4.
Marshall NS, Glozier N, Grunstein RR. Is sleep duration related to obesity? A critical review of the epidemiological evidence. Sleep Med Rev. 2008;12:289–98.
Kesse-Guyot E, Andreeva VA, Lassale C, Hercberg S, Galan P. Clustering of midlife lifestyle behaviors and subsequent cognitive function: a longitudinal study. Am J Public Health. 2014;104:e170–177.
Spring B, Moller AC, Coons MJ. Multiple health behaviours: overview and implications. J Public Health Oxf Engl. 2012;34:i3–10.
Charreire H, Casey R, Salze P, Kesse-Guyot E, Simon C, Chaix B, et al. Leisure-time physical activity and sedentary behavior clusters and their associations with overweight in middle-aged French adults. Int J Obes (Lond). 2010;34:1293–301.
Rovniak LS, Sallis JF, Saelens BE, Frank LD, Marshall SJ, Norman GJ, et al. Adults’ physical activity patterns across life domains: cluster analysis with replication. Health Psychol. 2010;29:496–505.
Chou K-L. The prevalence and clustering of four major lifestyle risk factors in Hong Kong Chinese older adults. J Aging Health. 2008;20:788–803.
de Vries H, Kremers S, Smeets T, Reubsaet A. Clustering of diet, physical activity and smoking and a general willingness to change. Psychol Health. 2008;23:265–78.
Martin-Diener E, Meyer J, Braun J, Tarnutzer S, Faeh D, Rohrmann S, et al. The combined effect on survival of four main behavioural risk factors for non-communicable diseases. Prev Med. 2014;65:148–52.
Sallis JF, Floyd MF, Rodríguez DA, Saelens BE. Role of built environments in physical activity, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Circulation. 2012;125:729–37.
Breiman L, Friedman J, Stone CJ, Olshen RA. Classification and Regression Trees. 1 edition. New-York: Chapman and Hall/CRC; 1984.
Van Hulst A, Roy-Gagnon M-H, Gauvin L, Kestens Y, Henderson M, Barnett TA. Identifying risk profiles for childhood obesity using recursive partitioning based on individual, familial, and neighborhood environment factors. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2015;12:17.
Agras WS, Hammer LD, McNicholas F, Kraemer HC. Risk factors for childhood overweight: a prospective study from birth to 9.5 years. J Pediatr. 2004;145:20–5.
King AC, Salvo D, Banda JA, Ahn DK, Gill TM, Miller M, et al. An observational study identifying obese subgroups among older adults at increased risk of mobility disability: do perceptions of the neighborhood environment matter? Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2015;12:157.
Lakerveld J, Brug J, Bot S, Teixeira PJ, Rutter H, Woodward E, et al. Sustainable prevention of obesity through integrated strategies: The SPOTLIGHT project’s conceptual framework and design. BMC Public Health. 2012;12:793.
Lakerveld J, Ben-Rebah M, Mackenbach JD, Compernolle S, Glonti K, Bárdos H, et al. Obesity-related behaviours and BMI in five urban regions across Europe: sampling design and results from the SPOTLIGHT cross-sectional survey. BMJ Open. 2015;5:e008505.
Craig CL, Marshall AL, Sjöström M, Bauman AE, Booth ML, Ainsworth BE, et al. International physical activity questionnaire: 12-country reliability and validity. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003;35:1381–95.
Marshall AL, Miller YD, Burton NW, Brown WJ. Measuring total and domain-specific sitting: a study of reliability and validity. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010;42:1094–102.
Feuillet T, Charreire H, Roda C, Ben-Rebah M, Mackenbach JD, Compernolle S, et al. Neighbourhood typology based on virtual audit of environmental obesogenic characteristics. Obes Rev. 2016;17:19–30.
Strobl C, Malley J, Tutz G. An introduction to recursive partitioning: rationale, application, and characteristics of classification and regression trees, bagging, and random forests. Psychol Methods. 2009;14:323–48.
Kiernan M, Kraemer HC, Winkleby MA, King AC, Taylor CB. Do logistic regression and signal detection identify different subgroups at risk? Implications for the design of tailored interventions. Psychol Methods. 2001;6:35–48.
Izenman AJ. Modern Multivariate Statistical Techniques: Regression, Classification, and Manifold Learning. Springer. New York: Springer; 2008.
R Core Team. R : A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. 2016. Available at: www.R-project.org.
Therneau TM, Atkinson EJ, Foundation M. An Introduction to Recursive Partitioning Using the RPART Routines. 2015.
Santaliestra-Pasías AM, Mouratidou T, Reisch L, Pigeot I, Ahrens W, Mårild S, et al. Clustering of lifestyle behaviours and relation to body composition in European children. The IDEFICS study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2015;69:811–6.
Cameron AJ, Welborn TA, Zimmet PZ, Dunstan DW, Owen N, Salmon J, et al. Overweight and obesity in Australia: the 1999-2000 Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab). Med J Aust. 2003;178:427–32.
Hsueh M-C, Liao Y, Chang S-H. Are total and domain-specific sedentary time associated with overweight in older taiwanese adults? Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015;12:12697–705.
King AC, Goldberg JH, Salmon J, Owen N, Dunstan D, Weber D, et al. Identifying subgroups of U.S. adults at risk for prolonged television viewing to inform program development. Am J Prev Med. 2010;38:17–26.
Ekelund U, Brage S, Besson H, Sharp S, Wareham NJ. Time spent being sedentary and weight gain in healthy adults: reverse or bidirectional causality? Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;88:612–7.
Bowman SA. Television-viewing characteristics of adults: correlations to eating practices and overweight and health status. Prev Chronic Dis. 2006;3:A38.
Basterra-Gortari FJ, Forga L, Bes-Rastrollo M, Toledo E, Martínez JA, Martínez-González MA. Effect of smoking on body weight: longitudinal analysis of the SUN cohort. Rev Esp Cardiol. 2010;63:20–7.
Chen Y, Horne SL, Dosman JA. The influence of smoking cessation on body weight may be temporary. Am J Public Health. 1993;83:1330–2.
Williamson DF, Madans J, Anda RF, Kleinman JC, Giovino GA, Byers T. Smoking cessation and severity of weight gain in a national cohort. N Engl J Med. 1991;324:739–45.
Veldheer S, Yingst J, Zhu J, Foulds J. Ten-year weight gain in smokers who quit, smokers who continued smoking and never smokers in the United States, NHANES 2003-2012. Int J Obes (Lond). 2015;39:1727–32.
Aubin H-J, Rollema H, Svensson TH, Winterer G. Smoking, quitting, and psychiatric disease: a review. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2012;36:271–84.
Courtemanche C, Tchernis R, Ukert B. The Effect of Smoking on Obesity: Evidence from a Randomized Trial. NBER Working papers No. 21937. 2016. National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
Swan GE, Carmelli D. Characteristics associated with excessive weight gain after smoking cessation in men. Am J Public Health. 1995;85:73–7.
Patel SR, Blackwell T, Redline S, Ancoli-Israel S, Cauley JA, Hillier TA, et al. The association between sleep duration and obesity in older adults. Int J Obes (Lond). 2008;32:1825–34.
Patel SR, Hu FB. Short sleep duration and weight gain: a systematic review. Obes. 2008;16:643–53. Silver Spring Md.
Magee L, Hale L. Longitudinal associations between sleep duration and subsequent weight gain: A systematic review. Sleep Med Rev. 2012;16:231–41.
Lakerveld J, Mackenbach JD, Horvath E, Rutters F, Compernolle S, Bárdos H, et al. The relation between sleep duration and sedentary behaviours in European adults. Obes Rev. 2016;17:62–7.
Basner M, Fomberstein KM, Razavi FM, Banks S, William JH, Rosa RR, et al. American time use survey: sleep time and its relationship to waking activities. Sleep. 2007;30:1085–95.
Chastin SFM, Palarea-Albaladejo J, Dontje ML, Skelton DA. Combined effects of time spent in physical activity, sedentary behaviors and sleep on obesity and cardio-metabolic health markers: a novel compositional data analysis approach. PLoS One. 2015;10:e0139984.
WHO. Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health. Geneva; 2004. Available at: http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/strategy/eb11344/strategy_english_web.pdf. Accessed 10 Mar 2016.
Oppert J-M, Thomas F, Charles M-A, Benetos A, Basdevant A, Simon C. Leisure-time and occupational physical activity in relation to cardiovascular risk factors and eating habits in French adults. Public Health Nutr. 2006;9:746–54.
Hirshkowitz M, Whiton K, Albert SM, Alessi C, Bruni O, DonCarlos L, et al. National Sleep Foundation’s sleep time duration recommendations: methodology and results summary. Sleep Health J Natl Sleep Found. 2015;1:40–3.
Kanter R, Caballero B. Global gender disparities in obesity: a review. Adv Nutr. 2012;3:491–8.
Pampel FC, Krueger PM, Denney JT. Socioeconomic disparities in health behaviors. Annu Rev Sociol. 2010;36:349–70.
Compernolle S, Oppert J-M, Mackenbach JD, Lakerveld J, Charreire H, Glonti K, et al. Mediating role of energy-balance related behaviors in the association of neighborhood socio-economic status and residential area density with BMI: The SPOTLIGHT study. Prev Med. 2016;86:84–91.
Drewnowski A, Rehm CD, Arterburn D. The geographic distribution of obesity by census tract among 59 767 insured adults in King County, WA. Int J Obes (Lond). 2014;38:833–9.
Qin L, Stolk RP, Corpeleijn E. Motorized transportation, social status, and adiposity: the China Health and Nutrition Survey. Am J Prev Med. 2012;43:1–10.
Boström G, Diderichsen F. Socioeconomic differentials in misclassification of height, weight and body mass index based on questionnaire data. Int J Epidemiol. 1997;26:860–6.
Rzewnicki R, Vanden Auweele Y, De Bourdeaudhuij I. Addressing overreporting on the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) telephone survey with a population sample. Public Health Nutr. 2003;6:299–305.
Shephard RJ. Limits to the measurement of habitual physical activity by questionnaires. Br J Sports Med. 2003;37:197–206.
Winckers ANE, Mackenbach JD, Compernolle S, Nicolaou M, van der Ploeg HP, De Bourdeaudhuij I, et al. Educational differences in the validity of self-reported physical activity. BMC Public Health. 2015;15:1299.
BeLue R, Francis LA, Rollins B, Colaco B. One size does not fit all: identifying risk profiles for overweight in adolescent population subsets. J Adolesc Health. 2009;45(5):517–24.